In this essay we will assess the usefulness of these functionalist theories, and look at how it helps us explain crime. One functionalist who tried to explain crime is Merton and his strain theory, the strain theory argues that people engage in the deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. Merton explanation combines 2 elements; structural factors- society’s unequal opportunity structure, cultural factors- strong emphasis to achieve goals and weak emphasis on using legit means. Merton uses the strain theory to explain some patterns of crime in society, he argues a person’s positioning in society affects the way they adapt or respond to the strain to anomie. Merton gives 5 different types of adaption; Conformity- the individual accepts socially acceptable goal and achieves it through legitimate means, Innovation- Individual accepts the role of success and wealth but uses illegitimate means to achieve them, Ritualism- Individual give up on legitimate goals but still follow strictly to the rules, Retreatism- Individuals reject legitimate goals and means of achieving them e.g drug addicts, the final type is Rebellion- Individuals reject existing goals and means but replace them with new one in desire to bring about revolutionary change.
This is affected by conformity depending on the specific circumstances. Word count 215 Part 2 Authority, obedience, real people, real world Aims of report • Summarise Milgram's original study into obedience to authority and it's findings. • Explain some of the variations to the carried out examining the findings and establishing cause. • Illustrate the relevance to the 'real' world the experiment. • Highlight relevance of the study to todays police
In present paper the role of an ethical police officer is investigated and to which extent an officer can degrade this title. It is hypothesized that morality can be fatally ruptured and police deviance can take residence in the space where morality used to be resulting in detrimental consequences for an individual and parties involved. The following three literature reviews attempt at supporting the hypothesis further as to why this behaviour exists. In a research article by Wilson, et al. (2007), an analysis of police corruption and police misconduct of Russian police officers was done.
| Deception | The participants were deceived related to what they were informed about that the experiment was studying. The participants believed they were administering shocks to the learner. | There was no deception as all participants were told in advance that if they became prisoners many of their usual rights would be suspended and they would have only minimal adequate diet. | Protection from harm | The participants (learners) were affected to the point where 3 people have full blown seizures. Many of the participant’s experiences nervous
My decision is virtuous as the individual was creating an unsafe environment, and I was following a moral code. If I were to issue a citation for every circumstance, it would be seen as deontological ethics. Conclusion In conclusion, through the comparison and dissimilarities of the three theories one can gain further understanding of the importance that ethics and social responsibility. The similarities between the three theories represent the good in people, their strive for excellence and justification. The differences in the three theories begin with the ethics and morality.
His goal in this chapter is to prove that based on the research he outlines on social psychology; situational forces play a major role in determining human’s actions. For this reason, Zimbardo argues that the vast majority of people, even inherently “good” human beings can do very evil things as a result of the situational forces that surround them. Critical Review Zimbardo (2008) begins the chapter by highlighting the key points in English Scholar C.S. Lewis’s book “The Inner Ring”. He agrees with Lewis’s idea that human beings are naturally motivated by the basic desire to be “in” and not “out”, and that this desire often causes an individual to cross the line between good and evil (Zimbardo 2008).
Asch's experiment also had a control condition where there were no confederates, only a "real participant". Findings: Asch measured the number of times each participant conformed to the majority view. On average, about one third (32%) of the participants who were placed in this situation went along and conformed with the incorrect majority on the critical trials. Over the 12 critical trials about 75% of participants conformed at least once and 25% of participant never conformed. In the control group, with no pressure to conform to confederates, less
The outsider would strap the old man down to an electric chair and if he got any questions wrong he would electrocute him. With each wrong answer going up fifteen more volts. Milgram discovered that Americans seem to be very obedient and sixty-two percent went all the way through to four-hundred and fifty volts. Milgram could not believe how obedient these people were and decided to move to a new location. Somewhere that was less prestige, so he started his experiment there as well.
Summarize the Milgram Study findings and importance and analyse: (a) In your view how is the Milgram Study on Obedience of interest to contemporary organisations and management? And (b) What are the potentially negative ethical consequences of blind and unquestioned obedience in organizations for both the organization’s own sustainability and organizational learning on one hand, and the way it treats its internal and external stakeholders? Critically analyse and discuss both (a) and (b) One of the most important elements of our society is the involvement of its members in organizations. People that become part of an organisation interact with each other so social life is formed inside the organisational structure but outside of it as well. Like most of the organisational management essentials, social life consists of norms that define people’s way of behaving and operating.
What are the major approaches that criminologists use to explain crime? Explain each of them. Which approach or approaches would be of greatest practical use to the security manager? Since ancient times, criminologists study various theories of crime in order to place measures that may reduce or eliminate specific crime risks. They are trying to use different approaches to explain crime by different category of theory, such as psychology, biology and sociology.