Migration Essay

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According to Castles and Miller (1993) migration patterns have been established before and after the Second World War. They described migration through human history as the movement of population in response to growth, climatic change and the development of production and trade. It has also been caused by warfare and enforcement through deportation and enslavement. Migration is the main avenue for upward mobility through the accumulation of finances and social status. In recent times migration has become two dimensional; because of international competiveness and an ability to expand output and employment opportunities for its own citizens, a country may become dependent on predictable and secure inflows of foreign workers. To eradicate or lower poverty levels in another country the best opportunity is through the influx of remittances from members working abroad. (Pienkos, 2006) According to Stephen Castles and Godula Kosack- a Marxist view of migration (p, 220) immigrants made up the subordinate positions in the labour market, had low standards of living, widespread prejudice and discrimination from the subordinate populations and authorities. Migration rates rise with the level of higher education. There is a higher probability for highly educated people to migrate because of a wider range of job opportunities. Brain drain occurs when talented and highly skilled people move from one place to another in search of advancement. This often occurs when young people leave third world countries to attend college and never return home after graduation. Brain drain can be a result of health risks, political instability and war or conflict. Countries that experience brain drain, suffer loss in the area of development. These countries generally do not have the ability to support growing industry and the need for better research facilities, career advancement and salary

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