It is also possible that managers do not adopt maximising behaviour at all, perhaps “satisficing” in response to shareholder discipline or that the policy of the firm is the result of complex interactions between various stakeholders. An For a firm to profit maximise, it would be the case that it sets output where marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue. If an additional unit of output were to be produced beyond this, it would add more to the firm’s costs of production than its revenue, thus reducing profit. The diagram below shows profit maximising output and the corresponding price, read from the demand curve. It also shows some other possible objectives for the firm.
However, increased AD may not cause inflation, it depends on various factors: If the economy is in recession and there is spare capacity a rise in AD will not cause inflation. If other components of AD are not increasing (e.g. consumer spending is low) then there is unlikely to be demand pull inflation. (X-M is not the biggest component of AD) Also if exports are cheaper then the effect on AD depends upon the elasticity of demand. If demand is inelastic there will only be a small increase in Quantity and there could be a fall in the value of exports (Marshall Lerner condition states devaluation only increases AD if PEDx + PEDm >1) Secondly, if there is a devaluation then there will be an increase in the price of imported goods.
Are share repurchases good or bad? The answer, as might be expected, is a bit gray. Assuming the company has a certain amount of cash they wish to return to shareholders, the two ways they can do it are through dividends and share repurchases. Share repurchases are typically more flexible for the company, while dividends are more flexible for the shareholder. The basic answer is that share repurchases are great when the share price is undervalued, and not-so-great when the share price is overvalued.
In the short run firms may not increase their profits because the cuts in prices but if they achieve this in long run they may experience maxim profits. However the directors try to imply polices which do not always maximize the profits their objective is to satisfy the owners by getting some profit and growing the company in order to receive bigger market share to influence prices and quantity produced. I think that the managers should firstly try to grow the company and work for normal profit and maybe in long run obtain super normal profits. In short run they try to achieve lots of other objectives regardless profit
Latam with less than 1% net profit margins has less room for execution failure than AAL with 6,66% profit margins considering small miscalculations or mistakes can be amplified in a way that leads to tremendous losses for shareholders. Once the margins reflect the firm’s production function, if margins are low, some actions such as reduce expenses, review the prices and identify the most profitable items to concentrate on achieving higher sales targets for them, could be done to improve the net profit. Asset turnover: This ratio is calculated indicates how efficiently management is able to drive sales from company assets in other words how effectively a company converts its assets into sales. The asset turnover ratio tends to be inversely related to the net profit margin as shown
Another problem is that there is no growth in your field if you work at Wal-Mart. It does not have a union, meaning its workers are not protected and don’t receive benefits. According to “What’s Good for Wal-Mart” by John Miller Wal-Mart on average pays its employees 12.4% less than other grocery stores and retail stores. Being the second largest job supplier in America I believe it should pay its employees more money. Wal-Mart is also starting eliminating the small
This will lead to lower prices as average costs went down. (econ of scale diagram) Economies of scale can occur to different reasons. For example technical, which is if one firm has low fixed costs, then mergers will have low average costs, which is good. Also they might have better interest rates when merged together. A vertical merger would normally benefit less from economies of scale, as it will not receive an advantage from technical economies of scale.
Therefore two objectives have been met. However, the diagram also shows a conflict. With higher AD there is also demand pull inflation.The extent of any economic growth depends on the elasticity of the AS curve. If there is a small output gap and a more inelastic AS curve then the impact on economic growth will be smaller but there will be more inflation. This is unlikely to be the case in the UK at the moment as low interest rates and a large budget deficit has not cause significant inflation.
If the gross profit falls from one year to the next or is thought to be too low the firm may need to decrease the costs of its purchases or may try to increase the sales without increasing the cost of the goods sold. The same thing applies to the net profit margin if it is too low or falls year on year then the business may need to look for cheaper premises or cut staffing costs. Return on Capital Employed will be used to see if an investment is worth the capital outlay, if the return from the capital outlay is higher than the interest offered by banks for money invested then the outlay is justified. you then have to talk about Liquidity,The Debtors’ and creditors’ and then an overview of it all
A country can be a capital (or labor)-abundant nations and labor (or capital)-scarce nations which consider their comparative advantage in technologies, input productivity, and wages of labor. Free trade can bring a lot of advantage to us; however, it does not apply in real world. Tariff and non-tariff are the tools that use to trade protection or prevent the economy from undergoing adjustment during economic stagnation. Although tariff and other restriction can concede the economic losses and using resource with less efficiency, but protectionism argue that non-economic benefit such as a national security can more than offset those economic losses. Normally trade protection is use to secure domestic industry and labor union’s economy welfare.