The new LDL levels were notably measured by their percent change from the old LDL levels. It is said that the 6 mg/kg dose lowered LDL levels by a percent change of 56% while the 3 mg/kg dose lowered LDL levels by a percent change of 46%. After 4 weeks the scientists found that some patients even had a LDL level reduction on 80% on the highest dose (6 mg/kg)! A blocking variable of name, race, or gender is not noted in the article. However, it is said that patients using cholesterol-lowering statins were used for the experiment which means patients who had high levels of cholesterol were mainly used as experimental
* Rutter investigated the progress of 111 Romanian Orphans who were brought to Britain for adoption. The children were raised in poor institutions. The Romanian children were tested for general cognitive levels till the age of 4. A control group of British children were also tested to see whether it was the separation from the mother or the poor conditions of the institution which led to the negative effects. The results were that after four years the two groups of children showed no significant differences in intellectual or physical development.
Only five of the delinquents who were not suffering affectionless psychopathy had been similarly separated from their mothers, and only two of the control group had been separated for any prolonged period. Bowlby concluded that delinquency is linked to childhood maternal deprivation, since the delinquents were more likely than the average population to have a deprivation experience in childhood. However there are problems with this research, for example, interviews are
The aim of Takahashiâs controlled observation was to see if the strange situation, was appropriate to use for Japanese infants and whether it was a true reflection of their attachment. It tested whether the strange situation was universal to cultures or just to the culture it was developed in (American, white, middle class). Takahashi took 60 infants from middle class backgrounds in Japan. They were all one year of age and had been raised at home. Takahashi found that 68% of infants were securely attached however 32% were insecure resistant.
Berger found that schizophrenics reported a higher recall of double-bind statements by their mothers than non-schizophrenics. However this evidence might not be reliable, as patients recall may be affected by their schizophrenic. Other studies are less supportive. Liem measured patterns of parental communications in families of schizophrenic children and found no difference when compared with normal children. Expressed emotion (EE) involves high levels of negative emotion (e.g.
In the beginning of the 1900s, social agencies started to supervise foster parents. This was the beginning where children’s needs as individuals were considered when placements were made. Foster care is a system of institutions, group homes, and private homes for abandoned, maltreated, and orphaned children. Placement in foster care is a solution to the care problems of children whose parents are unwilling, unable, or judged by the legal system as unfit to care for them. Foster care is unfavorable to American society, because “according to national statistic 40 to 50 percent of those children will never complete high school.
People also think that it could lead to an insecure attachment and lead to psychological effects on the child later in life. There are many studies which argue both sides to the effects of day care and I am now going to look at some closer. Clarke-Stewart studied 500 children and found that children in care for up to 30 hours per week were no more distressed than other children who had attended much lower hours of day care when separated from parents in the strange situation. This shows that children can form strong attachments with mothers even if they are in their 24/7 care, although the experiment could direction the other way as the experiment was only done in one area opposed to several so it lacks in population validity. Roggman et al (1994) compared infants who had attended day care in the first year with those who had remained at home and they found no difference in attachment with mothers.
He spent a particularly hard time at the boarding school where he suffered from lack of parental care and affection. It was this childhood suffering that led him to develop the theories on child development. Bowlby attended Trinity College at Cambridge where he studied pre-clinical sciences and psychology. He graduated from there winning the title for outstanding intellectual performance. After that, he started studying at University College Hospital in London at the age of twenty-two.
Edward Charles Harrison Project #4/ Final Draft English 111/ Filkins 12/14/2011 Word Count: 1166 The “peculiar” Child In 1896, Granville Stanley Hall, supervised a study called “Of Peculiar and Exceptional Children” which described a series of only-child oddballs as permanent misfits. For decades, academics and advice columnists alike disseminated their conclusion that an only child could not be expected to go through life with the same capacity of adjustment that children with siblings possessed. Hall claimed, “Being an only child is a disease in itself.” (Sandler 2) Thus the stereotype was born. Despite growing trends toward having just one child and the large body of evidence revealing the strengths of the only child, negative stereotypes about only children persist (Mancillas 268). Raising an only child has its opponents and its supporters, but a balanced level of parental involvement can lead to a well behaved, emotional strong child, that achieve higher scores in intelligence and achievement motivation compared to children from larger families.
One area of interest for researchers is the achievement of children from single-parent families as compared to those from two-parent families. Researchers Madden and Laurence conducted a study in 1997 that compared the communication skills of preschoolers from single-parent families to those from two-parent families. They found that only “25% of the children from single parent homes were referred for a diagnostic while 44% of children from two parent homes were referred” (5). They suggest that perhaps the major difference is the quality or amount of parental interaction time after the day care day is over since a single parent has no other adult present in the home for end of the day conversations. Madden and Laurence also discovered that day care workers were not surprised by the outcomes, as they had observed similar happenings in the day to day functioning of the children (7).