The fourth tool used in Radiology is a Functioning Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine also known as a FMRI. This is a specialized MRI that scans the brain to detect neural activity. Radiologists also use PET scans or Positron Emission Tomography. This machine has many rings to record energy emission in the human body to create an image. The last tool that Radiologists use is Ultrasonography machine or Ultrasound.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body. When you lie inside an MRI machine, the magnetic field temporarily realigns hydrogen atoms in your body. Radio waves cause these aligned atoms to produce signals, which are used to create MRI images. The MRI machine can also be used to produce 3-D images that may be viewed from many different angles. MRI is the most frequently used imaging test of the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, bones, joints, and other internal organs.
In general to researchers, it’s the study of relationships between behavior and any other body functioning; a link between behavior and the brain or even behavior and the mind. It looks at the influence of hormones, genes, the brain, and the central nervous system which ultimately explains the way we think, feel, and behave. When we speak of “Nature vs. Nurture, biological psychology teams up with “nature”. Foremost, biological psychology uses the “nature approach and applies it to the understanding of the psychological bases for learning and memory, emotionality, and mental and behavior disorders. This is how scientist have been able to come up with medication to treat mental illnesses like depression, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.
The potassium chromate and silver nitrate reacted together and created silver chromate, which ended up invading a select number of neurons and staining them black. The process underlying why this happened is still unknown. A German psychiatrist named Franz Nissl only a decade later developed the Nissl stain. Nissl used the dye cresyl violet to penetrate all of the cells on a given slide. Cresyl violet and several other dyes are able to bond with structures within the neuron cell bodies allowing researchers to count or estimate the number of cell bodies within a region.
MRI Brain/Vascular Case Study Meet Our Patient A 58 year-old male presented with persistent headache, nausea, changes in vision, and weakness on left side of body. Patient was referred by physician for MRI due to severity of symptoms. What is MRI? • Magnetic resonance is an imaging modality that uses magnets and radio waves to create 2D and 3D images on a computer • Unlike CT scanning or general x-ray studies, no ionizing radiation is involved with an MRI http://mbi.monash.edu.au/facilities/cmri.html Why is MRI Commonly Used for Brain Scans? “Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides detailed information about brain tumor anatomy, cellular structure and vascular supply, making it an important tool for the effective diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of the disease.
MRI can give detailed pictures of internal structures by using radio frequencies with an MRI scanner to produce an electromagnetic field aligning water molecules and consequently producing an image. The strengths of MRI imaging are that it shows how blood flows in the brain, and can show circulation problems. It also can be used in early detection of Alzheimer’s disease. The limitations of MRI Imaging are that it is expensive, the images are affected by movement and it cannot establish a cause-effect relationship. Research evidence using MRI Imaging is by Ashtari et al (2009).
With these facts in mind I think the positives outweigh the negatives and humans should use animal testing to conduct research. I think the biggest reason for animal testing is for medical purposes. Mice are the most commonly animal tested animal and share 95 percent of its DNA with humans. With that being said if scientists do testing on 100 mice and they all die in the process but it saves just 1 person’s life it is worth it. Killing or injuring an animal is never a good thing, but if it can be used to save a human it is worth it.
An imaging study can be used to identify unusual things inside the body, such as broken bones, tumors, leaking blood vessels, and so forth. One of the most famous types of diagnostic imaging is the x-ray, which uses radiation to take a static image of a specific area of the body. In addition to x-rays and related computed tomography (CT) technology, it is also possible to use ultrasound to look inside the body by bouncing sound waves from the body cavity to make a picture, and to utilize magnetic resonance imaging to agitate the cells to get a picture of the body. Medical imaging can also produce dynamic images, such as scans of brain activity or pictures of the heart in motion which can be used to look for diagnostic issues which would not appear in a static image. More invasive techniques involve the insertion of a camera into the body to take video of an area of interest.
P-32 is used in the treatment of leukemia and tumors. Tc-99 is used for the treatment of brain cancer. Na-24 in the form NaCl is used to study circulation of blood and is used in the study of metabolism of plants Co-60 and Cs-137 are used to destroy anthrax bacilli. Radioisotopes are also widely used in industry, because the radiation emitted by different radioisotopes can be used for rapid, accurate measurement of a materials thickness. The purity of materials can be established by means of radioisotopes.
Mother’s milk contains all the right nutrients a baby needs. It is at the right temperature and sterile. It also contains antibodies to boost the baby’s immune system. Some mothers can’t feed their baby breast milk. This can be due to cultural reasons and medical reasons.