Enzymes as Catalysts
Enzymes are catalysts that work to drive a reaction forward producing a product
of the substrate with the enzyme remaining unchanged. An enzyme has an active site
where the substrate binds, creating the enzymesubstrate complex. When the enzyme
comes into contact with the substrate, the active site induces a fit around the substrate
and produces the product of the substrate. With an enzyme in a reaction, the activation
energy necessary is lowered and the reaction is completed in the same amount of time.
At the end of each enzymesubstrate complex, the enzyme is unchanged and able to
bind to another substrate and begin the enzymesubstrate complex again.
Sucrose is broken down to glucose and fructose. In the liver, fructose is acted
upon by fructokinase producing fructose 1phosphate. Then, aldolase B acts upon
fructose 1phosphate producing DHAP and glyceraldehyde. DHAP and glyceraldehyde
can now enter the glycolysis pathway.
Aldolase B is an enzyme primarily found in the liver. It is involved in the process
of breaking down of fructose. It metabolizes the substrate fructose1phosphate to the
products DHAP and glyceraldehyde. DHAP and glyceraldehyde enter into glycolysis
which yields pyruvate or gluconeogenesis which yields G6P. If Aldolate B is not
working correctly, Fructose1phosphate builds up using lots of phosphate and leads to
a decrease in phosphate available. This is a problem because phosphate is depleted
which is required by the electron transport chain to make ATP(Sanders, 2013). F1P
acts as a signal of high blood sugar, causing glucokinase to stay in the cytoplasm. This
makes abundant amount to G6P from glucose. Too much G6P causes
gluconeogenesis and glycogen breakdown to slow down and the release of glucose into
the blood slows, leading to hypoglycemia.