Conflict of the Orders: This was the long struggle between the patricians and plebeians in the early Roman republic. In this struggle the plebeians slowly gained political rights as they gained access to the laws, gained the right to hold consulships and religious offices, and gained the right to intermarry with patricians. 12 Tables: This was the publication of the Roman Law Code in 450 B.C. It was placed on wooden tables and for the first time allowed Plebeians to know where they stood in relation to the law. Pyrrhic War: This was the war Rome fought and won against the Greeks of southern Italy.
The balance between the two began to shake after Rome’s success over Tarentum as well as Carthage’s attempts to extend its influence over Sicily. The clash between Carthage and Rome began after a series of events at Messana, a Sicilian city that controlled the strait between Sicily and the mainland. At the time, Messana had been controlled by a group called mammetines, and had been in conflict with Syracuse, a city further south, led by the tyrant Hiero II. The mammetines asked Carthage for help, and when this was given, Hiero ended his attack. One group in Messana decided to rid the city of the Carthaginians, as they now saw Carthage as a greater threat than Syracuse.
 Those new cities were composed of Greek colonists who came from different parts of the Greek world, and not, as before, from a specific "mother city".  The main cultural centers expanded from mainland Greece to Pergamon, Rhodes, and new Greek colonies such as Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria. This mixture of Greek-speakers gave
Assess the impact of the Hyksos invasion on the development of ear;y new kingdom society and government. The Hyksos invasion had a great impact on the development of early kingdom society and government. After the brilliance of the middle kingdom, Egypt fell into confusion its rulers murdering and replacing each other with great speed. During this time a group of foreigners moved into the delta area from Palestine. Eventually, under the leadership of ambitious chieftains or princes they seized control of the delta city of Avaris and turned into their stronghold.
This helps to reach a better understanding of why Hellenization actually occurred in Rome. As Rome was in the midst of a changing republic it looked on new ways to express ones power and wealth. They looked to the Greeks and saw the beautiful temples and structures being built by the wealthy and successful in battle, thus the romans began to use architecture as the Greeks did. Octavius was the first roman to Hellenize Rome with his porticus and therefore was the start to a new era in roman architecture. The reason the Porticus Octavia is relied on so much to describe the Hellenization is due to how similarly Octavius modeled after the Greeks.
The Iliad and Aenid are both natives, which form the epic’s first descriptions of war. In both narratives, the writers create in the readers mind images of the mystical and how they influenced certain things in life. The Aenid by Virgil was composed at a time of the Trojan War. Composed in the 8th century BC, The Aenid depicts the explorations of a legendary Trojan hero, Aeneas, who lived to tell the tale of the fall of Troy, navigated westwards to Italy and instituted Rome. Composed from many sources from the influential works of Homer, the Iliad and Odessey, Virgil founded his first six books on the Odessey and his last six books of the Iliad.
Unfortunately, the statue stood for only 56 years until Rhodes was hit by an earthquake in 226 BC. The architect of the Colossus, Chares Lindos, was a Rhodian sculptor, who was a patriot, and fought in the defense of the city. If it were spanning the harbor, they would have been forced to close the harbor to make it, which would shut down their economy. This of course, is not correct, it was actually posed in a traditional Greek matter; nude, wearing a spiked crown, shading his eyes with his right hand, and holding a cloak in his left. According to a book called Pilon of Byzantium, only 15 tons of bronzes were used, and only 9 tons or iron were used; although, these numbers are low.
Then, starting with the years of 3.000 BC, Mesopotamia and Egypt, with the effect of inventing and using the alphabet, made big progress in trade activities and succeeded to go ahead of Anatolia. During those times, the people living in the west and south regions of Anatolia were named as Luvi. They were a matriarchal society and worshiping mother goddess. It is known that some Luvis have moved to Crete and created the Minoan civilization. Among the years 2.000 BC, the tribes named as Achaeans, living around Balkans, invaded Greece.
It is my plan in this paper to provide a very brief history of Carthage, the power of Rome, the subsequent Punic Wars and the creation & strength of the Roman navy. I shall conclude giving my own view of the situation and what might have been achieved. The origin and rise of Carthage. Carthage was a North African city founded by the Phoenicians as a colony to Tyre, Mark (2011) indicates that Carthage was “Originally a small port on the coast, established only as a stop for Phoenician traders to re-supply or repair their ships” but its success as a trading post and rapid growth meant that it grew to be a powerful empire founded on trade and commerce. Morey (1901) tells us that Carthage “early acquired dominion over the native races of Africa, the Lydians and the Numidians.” who were native to the region.
A point for important trade routes, it became a place for trading towards the inland. Up until the middle of the 5th century B.C., the Etruscans dominated the city politically. In the course of the 6th century B.C., terracottas, ceramics and architecture also document the influence of Greek culture. The Romans defeated the Samnites, and Pompeii became part of the emerging Roman state. Pompeii joined the Italic revolt against Rome, the Social War of 91-87 B.C., and was crushed by Sulla.