The energy for this process is supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP using the enzyme ATPase and a specific protein channel in the membrane. Active transport is the movement of substances from where they are less concentrated to where they are more concentrated. It is undertaken by carrier proteins in cell membranes, which move specific molecules or ions against the concentration gradient using energy supplied by ATP. Cells have many adaptations to allow them to facilitate active transport; they may have carrier proteins in the cell surface membrane designed to transport particular molecules or ions or possess many mitochondria to supply the required ATP. Active transport requires energy in the form of ATP and protein carriers to move the molecules across the membrane.
One example of where this would occur is glucose absorption into the blood. In active transport, once molecules have bound to carrier proteins, ATP binds to the protein and is broken into ADP and Pi. This provides energy for the protein molecule to change shape and open to the other side of the membrane. This moves molecules against the concentration gradient. ADP and Pi then recombine and cause the protein to revert back to its original shape.
Another living property that living organisms possess is regulation. The environment outside of an organism may change drastically. However living organisms can adapt to such drastic changes by adjusting its internal environment therefore being able to coordinate internal functions, respond to stimuli, and cope with environmental stresses. All organisms grow and develop; another very important property that characterizes living things. Information carried by DNA controls the pattern of growth and development in all organisms.
P4 - Unit 5 Task 4a: Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body. In this assignment, I will be describing the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body What is metabolism? Metabolism is a collection of chemical reactions that take place in the body's cells, metabolism converts the nutrients received from food we eat in to essential energy, which is needed to power everything that we do. In our bodies there are specific proteins that control the chemical reactions of metabolism. The two body systems I will write about are the respiratory system and the digestive system.
The Pituitary Gland The body contains a system for communicating, coordinating and controlling the bodies work. This is known as the endocrine system. The endocrine system works together with other systems and glands in the body to maintain and control body energy levels, reproductions, growth and development, homeostasis and responses to stress and injury. To maintain these functions, a network of glands and organs produce, store, and secrete certain hormones to complete different body functions. Hormones, which are chemical messengers, transfer information from one gland to another for important body functions.
Unit 5 P4, M1 & D1 Introduction In this assignment I will be explaining the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism. I will also be discussing the role of energy in the body and analysing the interrelationship between the respiratory system and the circularity system and how they perform gaseous exchange. The Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system has many different functions. The four major functions are to transport gases, nutrients and waste products around the body, to help the body maintain constant body temperature, to protect the body from infection and blood loss and to help the body maintain fluid balance. It has many different components within the cardiovascular system too, the main components include the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries and the blood.
Enzyme has an active site in a specific shape because of its tertiary structure. Enzyme works for binding with substance of a specific shape that fits in it and break down the substance. Enzymes denature due to various factors. The temperature, PH level, and the concentration of the substance influence enzyme activities. When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore.
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. Some of the main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy, regulate glucose and spare the use of proteins for energy. They can either be stored in starch from plants or in the liver. The reason cells need carbohydrates is to gain enough energy to continue their cellular work. For example, when the cells absorb the sugars they need, they will be able to carry out functions.
At the start of my essay I will start by discussing the gas exchange in both reactions and explain different types of cells and explain why they are important. Next, I will discuss the reactions and products of the chemical reactions. Finally, I will discuss the energy transfer which takes place in the reactions. Cell parts: There are different types of cells which are adapted to do their function which is why they look and are constructed differently. Both animal and plant cells have a nucleus, they both go through cell division and both cells have the main organelles to complete protein synthesis.
| Proteins | Proteins are big molecules that have important roles in the body. They do a lot of the work in the cells and are used for structure, function and the regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.They are used to make enzymes, hormones, cell membranes, anti-bodies, muscle, haemoglobin, collagen and elastin (connective tissue), repair of tissues and the growth of the body.Examples of this food group would be meat, eggs, fish, nuts milk and some vegetables like lentils. | Vitamins | Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities. Vitamins are extracted from foods because the human body cannot produce enough or not at all.B group vitamins are co-enzymes that help processes such as breathing, examples of this would be green leafy vegetables and cereals.Vitamin A is needed for the production of healthy epithelial tissue and for the immune system, along