There are quite a few criticisms of the MSM. One criticism is that it can be considered to be too simple a model. The MSM suggests that in our brains, we have one block for all our short term memory, and one block for all our long term memory. However, the case study of KF proves this to not be the case. After having a motorbike crash, KF lost a lot of his short term memory, but still had a little bit of functional short term memory.
KF suffered brain damage from a motorcycle accident which damaged his short-term memory. The damage was mainly for verbal information and his memory for visual information was unaffected. This shows that there are separate STM components for visual information (VSS) and verbal information (phonological loop). Another strength is that The working memory model explains a lot more than the
He/she showed that though their short term memory was damaged or quite poor when it came to preforming verbal tasks, they were still able to perform visual tasks, indicating separate stores for visual and verbal task as suggested by the working memory model. Brain scans can also show physiological support indicating that separate stores of memory are used for different types of tasks as different parts of the brain are used for verbal and visual data based information, as suggested by the working memory model. Another positive remark about the working memory model is that it is more plausible and realistic compared to the multi-store model as it suggests that the stm holds our information in ties with manipulation due to problems that maybe encountered unlike the multi-store model that claims the stm is a static store with its fixed duration and capacity rate that may be little affected. The working memory model gives more in-depth information about the short term memory store in contrast to the multi-store model. On the other hand, the working memory model has been hugely criticised for not being a comprehensive model of memory as it only concerns itself with the short term
Therefore when the articulatory suppression task was completed at the same time as the image manipulation, separate components were used for each task, allowing the tasks to be completed more efficiently. This is evidence demonstrating that short-term memory is made up of separate components which serve different purposes, therefore supporting the working memory model. Another strength of this model is that its multiple components provides a more effective account of short-term memory than the single component short-term memory of the multi-store memory model. However, a weakness of
The working memory model was proposed by Baddeley & Hitch (1974) as an alternative to the multi-store model of memory. It has been developed to directly challenge the concept of a single unitary store for short-term memories. The working memory model is based upon the findings of the dual-task study and suggests that there are four separate components to our working memory (STM). The most important component is the central executive; it is involved in problem solving/decision-making. It also controls attention and plays a major role in planning and synthesizing information, not only from the subsidiary systems but also from LTM.
Deeper processing led to improved recognition, which supports the levels of processing theory of memory. To evaluate, a weakness of this study is that it lack generalisability. The study consisted of only 24 participants. This small sample is not representative of the target population as the results could have been due to
The working model memory consists of 4 main parts: including the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad and episodic buffer - along with rehearsal mechanisms. The central executive is considered the most important of the working memory as it controls attention and coordinates the actions of the other components. Although it has a limited capacity, it can briefly store information. It can store information in any sense modality. The phonological loop has two parts: the articulatory control system or the inner voice, and the phonological store or the inner ear.
Cognitive interview as an alternative method of interviewing witnesses has been shown to increase accuracy of memory, although in some cases it has been shown to make little difference. The stages of cognitive interview are; report everything, changed perspective, reverse order and context reinstatement, which research has shown improves recall. An issue with most of the research is that it is conducted in laboratory conditions and some of it poses ethical issues. One piece of research into the cognitive interview is from Geiselman (1988). He showed students videos of violent crimes and interviewed them 48 hours later either using a standard police interview or the cognitive interview.
Outline and evaluate the working memory model (12 marks) Baddeley and Hitch proposed that memory has 4 components. The central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer. The central executive decides how to share out and direct attention to incoming information. The phonological loop can be thought of as a maintenance rehearsal mechanism for retaining verbal information. It is sub-divided into two other components, the phonological store (inner ear), which holds acoustically coded information, and the articulatory process (inner voice), which allows for sub vocal rehearsal (words you are about to say).
The working memory model (WMM) was designed by Badley and Hitch in (1974). They felt that the short term memory was not one store but a number of different stores, that there was more going on in the short term memory than just rehearsal as proposed in the multi store modal memory. It consists of the Central Executive which is the key component of the working memory model. All material from our short term sensory store is processed here, it involves many higher mental processes; such as decision making and problem solving. The central executive is also said to co -ordinate the performance of two separate tasks.