Memory Essay

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The Foundations of Memory “Memory is the process of maintaining information over time” (Matlin, 2005) “Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present” (Stemberg, 1999) What is memory? Memory- refers to the process that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information For the psychologists the term memory covers three important aspects of information processing: Memory is built on 3 basic processes- encoding, storage, and retrieval- that are analogous to a computer’s keyboard, hard drive, and software to access the information for display on the screen Encoding- initial recording of information Storage- information saved for future use Retrieval- recovery of stored information According to the three-system approach to memory that dominated memory research for several decades, there are different memory storage systems or stages through which information must travel if it is to be remembered (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The three-system memory theory proposes the existence of the three separate memory stores a] Sensory memory b] Short-Term memory c] Long-Term memory Sensory Memory * First level of memory * The initial momentary storage of information lasting only an instant * Sensory memory plays an important role in receiving and processing environmental influences from all five senses There are 3 types of sensory memory * Iconic Memory (Visual)- is a fast decaying store of visual information -it was the first sensory store to be investigated back as far as 1740 -Jan Andrej Segner (German) physicist and mathematician -he attached a glowing coal to a cart wheel and rotated the wheel at increasing speed until an unbroken circle of light was perceived by the observer. He calculated that the glowing coal needed to make a complete

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