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Cha 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle •  Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind •  Genetics is the scientific study of heredity and variation •  What is variation? •  What is heredity?

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Concept 13.1: Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes •  Genes as units of heredity: segments of DNA that… •  Locus: a specific location on a certain chromosome •  Most DNA is packaged into chromosomes •  In asexual reproduction: pass on exact copies •  In sexual reproduction?

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells •  Human somatic cells: 23 pairs •  Homologous chromosomes, or homologs
•  One chromosome from each parent •  The same size and shape •  Same location of centromere •  Genes controlling the same inherited characteristics: maybe different versions of the same genes •  With one important exception: X and Y!
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Fig. 13-3b

Karyotype
5 µm Pair of homologous replicated chromosomes Centromere

Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome

Sexual Reproduction •  Two parents give rise to offspring with unique combinations of genes from the two parents
•  Role of reproductive cells: gametes

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

•  A diploid cell (2n) has two sets of chromosomes •  For humans 2n= 46 •  Two sets of 23 •  A gamete (sperm or egg) is haploid (n) •  For humans n= 23 •  Why is this necessary?

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Fig. 13-4

Key 2n = 6 Maternal set of chromosomes (n = 3) Paternal set of chromosomes (n = 3)

Two sister chromatids of one replicated chromosome

Centromere

Two nonsister chromatids in a homologous pair

Pair of...

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