Longitudinal wave The vibrations of the object set particles in the surrounding medium in vibrational motion, thus transporting energy through the medium. For a sound wave traveling through air, the vibrations of the particles are best described as longitudinal. Longitudinal waves are waves in which the motion of the individual particles of the medium is in a direction that is parallel to the direction of energy transport. Sound waves in air (and any fluid medium) are longitudinal waves because particles of the medium through which the sound is transported vibrate parallel to the direction that the sound wave moves. As the vibrating string moves in the forward direction, it begins to push upon surrounding air molecules, moving them to the right towards their nearest neighbor.
Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection - in diffuse, waves are reflected in many different ways form a rough surface - in specular, waves are reflected in the same direction from a smooth surface REFRACTION (light) - when one medium ends and another begins, that is called boundary - when a wave encounters a boundary that is denser, part of it is reflected and a part of it is transmitted - the frequency of the wave is not altered when crossing the boundary / barrier but the speed and wavelength are - the change in speed and wavelength can cause the wave to bend if it hits the boundary at an angle other than 90 degrees - this bending as light enters the water can cause objects under water to appear at a different location than they actually are REFRACTION (sound) - sound waves bend when passing into cooler / warmer air because the speed of sound depends in the temperature of the air - sound travels slower in cooler air REFRACTION (water) - water waves bend when they pass from deep water into shallow water, the wavelength shortens and they slow down. DIFFRACTION - involves a change in direction of waves as they pass through
Snell's Law In the previous sections we studied light reflecting off various surfaces. What happens when light passes from one medium into another? The speed of light, like that of all waves, is dependent on the medium through which it is travelling. When light moves from one medium into another (for example, from air to glass), the speed of light changes. If the light ray hits the boundary of the new medium (for example the edge of a glass block) at any angle which is not perpendicular to or parallel with the boundary, the light ray will change its direction through the next medium, or appear to `bend'.
Earthquake shaking and damage is the result of three basic types of elastic waves. Two of the three propagate within a body of rock. The faster of these body waves is called the primary or P wave. Its motion is the same as that of a sound wave in that, as it spreads out, it alternately pushes (compresses) and pulls (dilates) the rock. These P waves are able to travel through both solid rock, such as granite mountains, and liquid material, such as volcanic magma or the water of the oceans.
Experimental Design Focus question: What is the relationship between strain and time? Hypothesis: The more springs added, the mass will vibrate quicker. The more mass added, the longer it will take to vibrate. Vice versa, the more springs taken away, the longer the mass will take to vibrate. The more mass taken away, the quicker it will vibrate.
Like ocean waves, sound waves need a medium to travel through. Sound can travel through air because air is made of molecules. These molecules carry the sound waves by bumping into each other, like Dominoes knocking each other over. Sound can travel through anything made of molecules - even water! There is no sound in space because there are no molecules there to transmit the sound waves.
The attenuation of glass optical fiber is caused by two factors, absorption and scattering. Absorption occurs in several specific wavelengths called water bands due to the absorption by minute amounts of water vapor in the glass. Energy of this type of wave. 3. How is this type of wave created?
1 Introduction Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time in a given direction. It is a vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity . An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity. The next equations describe velocity and acceleration: a = v/s (1) where v = m/ s (2) where m = distance in meters; s = time in seconds. Since acceleration is a vector quantity it has magnitude and direction .
Different types of rocks are created based on the amount of pressure. The higher the pressure, the more drastic the change. The temperature increases the deeper a rock is. This gives good possibilities for more diverse changes. Examples of regional metamorphic rocks include schist and gneiss.
When the sun and moon are at a right angle, the pulls fight each other and cause a smaller difference between high and low tides called neap tides. Another type of motion is waves. Everything in the water causes waves, but the most common thing is wind. When wind passes over the surface of the water, friction causes it to ripple. The strength, distance, and length of the wind gusts determine how big the ripples become.