Introduction This report discusses an experiment to asses the chemical breakdown of starch into maltose (sugar) in the presence of the enzyme amylase, a digestive process within the body. Nutrients can be absorbed only when broken down to their monomers (small molecules that breakdown further to other molecules). Enzymes are large protein molecules produced by body cells. “They are biological catalysts, meaning they increase the role of a chemical reaction without themselves becoming part of the product. Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes.
The cephalic phase contains those stimuli that originate from the head. By seeing, smelling or anticipating food, the brain is able to inform the stomach to prepare for a meal. These stimuli from the head encourage the mouth to ‘produce an enzyme called salivary amylase’ which initiates the first stage of chemical digestion. The brain tells the stomach to produce gastric juice (which contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin) before food arrives, when the nerves contained in the tongue and cheek are motivated. 2.2 What happens in the cephalic stage?
This then increases the surface area of the food making it easier for enzymes to digest it. The mouth produces a digestive juice, which makes it easier for the food to be digested, called saliva which contains the enzyme salivary amylase and this comes from the salivary gland. This enzyme begins the digestion of carbohydrates in the food by breaking down starch, from the bread, into maltase. This process is chemical digestion. After this the food is taken down a long tube, called the oesophagus, which takes the food from the mouth to the stomach.
The liver, gallbladder and the pancreas begin to bestow to the digestive process once the chyme reaches the small intestine. A large part of the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food takes place once the chyme or food enters the small intestine. Secretion of bile from both the liver and the gallbladder acids with the digestion and absorption of fat. At the same time, digestive enzymes and bicarbonate secretions from the pancreas helps in the digestive process. The left-over materials not absorbed in the little intestine the moves into the large intestine by the sphincter.
The absorption of nutrients in the small intestine is facilitated by tiny projections called villi, which provide more surface area for absorption. Nutrients pass through the intestinal membrane into the circulatory system, and they are absorbed into the cells. They are used for growth,
This is not the case. Increasing levels of highly fatty foods over a prolonged amount of time is indiscriminante of age, gender or fitness level. Higher levels of saturated fats will increase the amount of cholesterol produced within the liver. The liver is a major site of biochemical activity within the body. Its homeostatic function is to convert food into other forms and remove excess cholesterol from the blood; any excess cholesterol is excreted as bile into the hepatic vein leading to the heart, thus increasing the amount of cholesterol circulated around the blood stream.
Outline and Evaluate the Role of Neural Mechanisms of Controlling Eating Neural Mechanisms are structures that regulate behaviour and voluntary and involuntary bodily functions. The main area of the brain involved in the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a gland in the brain responsible for homeostasis. The Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN) and the Lateral Nucleus (LN) are the parts of the hypothalamus that are thought to be involved in food regulation. According to the Set Point Theory, we have a biologically determined standard around which our body weight is regulated.
Halweil points out that though the use of industrial fertilizers are producing bigger plants with more yield faster, when one depletes the soil of its numerous necessary nutrients down to a basic three, those grown with the use of the fertilizers will always lose to those developed in organic soils, when comparing nutritional values and benefits. As a result, those who are on the Western diet are overweight, overfed, and malnourished—which is responsible for various chronic diseases according to Bruce Ames, a Berkley biochemist. Ames’ research found that human cells take on cancerous mutations when they are deprived of certain vitamins and nutrients. He adds that consuming the necessary amounts of fruits and vegetables daily can avert this, but the odds of prevention seem bleak since approximately a fifth of American children and a third of adults actually consume the needed amount. Pollan concludes by suggesting that the food system is a vicious circle—being that those who eat nutritionally drained foods, will eat more of it, in hopes of reaching the point of being nutritionally satisfied, though they never will
A large buildup of fat cells within the body can contribute to weight gain (Eades & Eades 1996). Since fat cells are created from insulin, proponents of the weight loss plans believe that controlling the concentration of insulin within the body can guarantee immediate weight loss. By controlling the level of insulin through the consumption of food, the level of insulin production can be controlled at a level that can help with weight loss. By eliminating the consumption of foods that have high levels of sugar can guarantee an immediate weight loss. People could achieve a desired body weight in a short
Effect of Enzyme Activity on Temperature Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate how effectively the enzyme amylase breaks down starch at different temperatures Research Question: How does the increase in temperature affect the time taken for amylase to breakdown 2ml of starch? Purpose: Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that comprise the largest and most highly specialized class of protein molecules. Enzymes act as catalysts to increase the rates of chemical reactions. A fundamental property of enzymes is their specificity. Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site.