Bussey came to this conclusion when he found that children imitate same sex models but do not imitate same sex models that are gender inappropriate. Gender roles are also affected by social influences like parents. Parents sometimes have strong opinions on the divides between genders which results in different reinforcements for different behaviours. For example, a mother may react negatively to their daughter playing with masculine toys but positively to their son playing with the same toys. Parental influence has strengths, for example there is a wealth of scientific evidence supporting it.
They may be any emotion: love, fear, patriotism, guilt, hate, joy, etc. In this ad sarcasm is being used to grab the viewer’s attention. There is no real island of Misfit toys, but there are toys that used to be cool at one time and don’t get played with anymore because there are new, cooler toys out. Ethos refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker or writer. When we believe that the speaker or writer does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what they have to say.
This make's the child very happy and like to continue or add more to what they have done. It also makes them feel good about themselves. Praises are very important when working with children because it also helps the develop their morals. Negative behaviour will be ignored as long as there is no health and safety risk. A tantrum will be ignored by the teachers but if a child is expressing negative behaviour such as hitting, they will then be told to stop in a firm voice (not shouting) Vygotsky - Adults should provide a play based curriculum and engage with children in play activities to extend their learning.
Unstructured interviews allow the interviewer to build rapport with the pupils, unlike questionnaires where there is no chance to build rapport because the researcher has limited contact with the pupils. This will help the interviewer to gain more valid results when interviewing children from different subcultures. This is because the pupils will be more likely to give truthful answers when they trust the interviewer. This is especially important when interviewing pupils from anti-school subcultures, as they usually come from working class backgrounds and may be less willing to speak to the interviewer. This was shown in William Labov’s study of the language of black American pupils.
He says that children who play outside and explore the great outdoors are more creative and that being outside help children become better athletes, and prevent depression. How do we know that? Louv says all these facts but fails to show hard concrete evidence; where are the experiments that prove his theory? In the beginning of the passage readers were shown that at Scripps Ranch Community Association, children were doing normal outside activities, but then were asked to stop by the community association. Therefore moving all activities inside which caused parents to watch their children become couch potatoes.
I also don’t agree with him saying cochlear implants wont work well for young children and there better off for “healthy adults.” I believe that is would probably be easier for children to learn how to use this cochlear implant as a tool because at those young ages they soak up all information they can receive, rather then adults who are sometimes stuck in their ways. I don’t know this for a fact but this is what I believe can also be a circumstance. I do agree with him saying there are a lot of risks for children but those risks can also be just as big as a risk for adults. Like in Kathryn’s article she says you need to look at the big picture and what great potential the cochlear implant can have for children or adults. I also don’t agree with what they both say about the deaf
‘It’s Not Discipline, It’s a Teachable Moment’ states that many parents and educators use various forms of punishment to discipline. However, in doing so, they tend to inadvertently reinforce inappropriate behaviors. While time-outs can be effective in helping young children control their emotions, many adults misuse the technique, by making it too long or scolding the child during the time-out. As the article points out, parents will often drop whatever they are doing in order to discipline their child in cases where they are acting up, which is exactly what the child wants, thus rewarding them. Moreover, it is much more effective to reward children for their desirable behavior.
Final Product #2 By banning books, it creates a negative effect on kids and adults and possibly even eliminate the teachings of life lessons for students. Going through life without the knowledge of what else is out there besides “good” in people can be harsh for some people especially for kids. Kids would not be able to handle life too well in the real world, if the whole time when they were younger they were being protected from all the "bad things" and “bad people.” Many people decide to do what they think is best for the safety of children, but in reality when kids grow up to be adults sometimes it harms them in more ways than helping them. Books shouldn't be banned from society, but some books do have suggestive content or profanity. When the so-called “negative parts” of the books remain, kids gain knowledge of what is and what is not good to do, say, or act.
The study is also limited because it only focuses on aggression on a doll as appose to real life situation which means that the results cannot be generalized. Furthermore a real life clown was used and the children showed the same levels of aggression towards it as well which shows that SLT does apply to violence towards other people. The strengths of this theory is that it can be used to explain aggression in the absences of direct reinforcement because if the children were never directly reinforced for their own aggressive behaviour, the consequence of vicarious reinforcement is necessary to explain their actions. There are also ethical issues related to this study and they make SLT difficult to test experimentally since its considered unethical to expose children to aggressive behaviour with the knowledge that they may then imitate those acts in their own
Larzelere (2000) found that the most beneficial outcomes tended to occur when physical punishment was used non-abusively, flexibility, and infrequently as a backup to other disciplinary methods. However, Larzelere (2000) also found that spanking was shown to have no better effect on the obedience of four to nine year olds then six alternative methods. People may argue that parents should be able to choose between the various alternatives including non-abusive spanking as a disciplinary method. There are many researchers who believe that physical punishment is the way to discipline a child. Harding and Ireland (1989) argue that corporal punishment is easy and quick to apply, does not take much skill, and is readily available when needed.