History and Theory (Name) PSY/504 (Date) (University) (Facilitator) History and Theory Psychology has changed over the past several decades. Theories once thought to be new and difficult to prove are the base of other theories. Theorists like Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are still discussed in modern psychology. Sigmund Freud was a psychoanalyst and proved to be one of the most influential theorists of all time. His research and studies influenced other theorists to research deeper into Freud’s theory or to research and develop his or her own theory.
According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" and his subsequent book Motivation and Personality. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs. This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid.
Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: From Miller to Bandura and Beyond The Social-Cognitive learning theory is based off a collaboration of many psychologists work and ideas, it is based on the concepts that we learn (and gain our personalities) by watching how others react to their environment. The original concept originated from psychologists N.E Miller and J. Dollard in the early 1940’s. In the mid 1950’s American psychologist Julian Rotter drifted from the theories of psychoanalysis and behaviourism and wrote on social learning theories. In the 1960’s a Canadian psychologist, Albert Bandura, expanded on theories and became the leading architect of social cognitive theory (Santrock, 2011, p. 27). In 1941 N.E Miller and associate J. Dollard proposed that one could learn a behavior by observing that behavior in others.
Process Report of a Client Centred Therapy Session Reflection and Literature Review "It is that the individual has within himself or herself vast resources for self-understanding, for altering his or her self-concept, attitudes and self-directed behavior - and that these resources can be tapped if only a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided." (Rogers, 1986, cited in The Carl Rogers Reader by Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1989, p.135) This process report is an assignment for the Humanistic Approach module required as evidence that students have acquired the skills and understood how to work with clients from a humanistic perspective. The humanistic approach evolved in the United States in 1950s and it was proposed by Carl Rogers who proposed that “therapy could be simpler,
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Leigh Puckett Everest Online SPC2300 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970. Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. The Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs five-stage model is clearly and directly attributable to Maslow; later versions of the theory with added motivational stages are not so clearly attributable to Maslow. These extended models have instead been inferred by others from Maslow’s work. Specifically Maslow refers to the needs Cognitive, Aesthetic and Transcendence as additional aspects of motivation, but not as distinct levels in the Hierarchy of Needs.
Humanistic and Existential Theories Influence Interpersonal Relationships According to The Humanistic and Existent Theory influence on interpersonal relationships, people will try and associate with other people and try to connect in a healthy and productive relationship, but in all they will be alone. “Abraham Maslow believed fulfilling love and belongingness was a primal need and must be filled by friendship, creating a family, having a mate and maintaining associations with others. He proposed fulfillment at this level was essential for other levels of human success” (Feist and Feist). Our social construction will help us claim the knowledge, personality and behavior will be constructed from any social interaction and learning theories will define how the human being can learn from their behavior and personality according to the response from their environment will have some considerations internally. The humanistic theory has the great tendency to encourage the human drive toward an ultimate goal that is predetermined.
He set out to conduct numerous experiments, developing many theories on how he could better the lives of society. "It has been felt by many people over the years that there was no United States inventor as great as Franklin until the time of Thomas A. Edison" (Blow 24). Benjamin Franklin considered his efforts to be a part of "his civic duties" (Franklin). He states his attitude toward his inventions by asking the question, "What signifies Philosophy that does not apply to some use?" (Fleming 21).
Each time Ben had a question about something in his surrounding and tried to figure out why it works the way it works, he was automatically being a scientist. For starters, Ben created for himself, with this; he got the idea of helping others. However, there are several other inventions of Ben that we use in present day but that much in our dally life. Such like the following; clocks, astronomical instrument, the flexible catheter, a clothes pressing machine, improvements in the printing press, laboratory equipment, the glass harmonica, even a chair that can be converted into a ladder!
Bandura (1977a,1997) described self-efficacy as individual judgments of one's capacities to arrange and execute approaches to accomplish desired goals. The self-efficacy level depends upon the task difficulty. He additionally discussed human motivation with reference to outcome expectations. He analyzed that even though self-efficacy and outcome expectations both influence motivation, however self-efficacy plays a vital role in the human motivation as the kind of outcomes individuals
Where countries who practice different culture have different motivation theories being implemented to their individuals. People are motivated for work based on their attitude and behaviours, or their belief that their effort will results in which outcome. (Walker et al 1977) extend that motivation for work responds to the individual variety such as their attribute, nature of the job and each individual role position and concept. People tend to think differently when they reached every different stages in lives, just like their perceptions on intrinsic and extrinsic