Compare and contrast the Functionalist and Marxist views of society. Sociology has been classified as the last in a long line of emerging scientific disciplines which people have developed and explored in order to make sense of their world. Early theories such as the positivist approach of Comte, the functionalist views of Emile Durkheim and the conflict perspectives of Karl Marx have offered a view of why human beings behave as they do and how they fit together in society. Each theory has to some extent been shaped or influenced by the approach of others and many sociological explanations have comparisons or contrast that can be made. Browne once said "sociological perspectives centre on how much freedom or control the individual had to influence society" He goes on to comment on the two main approaches "structuralism is concerned with the overall structure of society and the way social institutions act as a constraint, or limit and control individual behaviour".
5. How did he justify entrusting people with the right to revolt? 6. What are the deficiencies in his theory of political obligation? Sources of Material: The researcher in this paper has relied on primary as well as secondary sources of material such as books, articles, journals, etc.
Karl Marx, on the one hand, ideas about class are still influential in many cultures around the world. On the other hand Max Weber is considered one of the fathers of modern thought and one of the most influential persons in the world of intellect. Despite their clear similarities, such as both coming from a European protestant background, they have distinct differences that are very important to note. Karl Marx’s theory regarding worker alienation and the uneven distribution of capital has the greater number of parallels with today’s society. ------------------------------------------------- Marx- ------------------------------------------------- In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base and superstructure; the base comprehends the forces and relations of production — employer-employee work conditions, the technical division of labour, and property relations — into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life.
Hegel‘s Influence On Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was an influential philosopher, social scientist and revolutionary who is the founder of theoretical communism and the most important socialist thinker in the 19.century. Marx is inspired by three major traditions. These traditions are English economy, French socialists and German philosophers. According to these traditions, he forms his political philosophy. His political thoughts are very discussed and reviewed issue, even today.
Change Theory | Kurt Lewin | INTRODUCTION Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) is considered as the father of social psychology He was born in Germany, later emigrated to the US. He is well known for his writings on group dynamics, group therapy and social psychology. Kurt Lewin introduced his field theory concepts, emphasizing that the group differs from the simple sum of its parts. Lewin coined the term group dynamics in 1939. His field theory states that "one’s behavior is related both to one’s personal characteristics and to the social situation in which one finds oneself."
In the context of Marx’s writings, scholars speak of two Marx: the young and the old. While the old Marx was more deterministic with his in-depth study of the workings of capitalism, the young Marx was concerned with alienation, human nature and morality. However, there is disagreement to when Marx's thought began to mature, and the problem of the idea of a "Young Marx" is the problem of tracking the development of Marx's works and of its possible unity. The problem thus centers on Marx's transition from philosophy to economics. This essay will focus on the works of Marx prior to 1846 specifically on the dominant theme of alienation and freedom.
Its theories were then taken on within the work of Emile Durkheim and a lot more recently by Talcott Parsons in America 1940-50's. From as far as functionalism has gone back, from about the 1830's onwards, it has been largely based on society being a system like the human body requiring a combination of social institutions in order to function. Its theorists seek to explain the existence of social institutions in accordance to the role they perform for society and focuses on society rather than the individual in it and hence it is a structural theory. Functionalist uses positivist methodology which is currently at decline as a modern research technique. Within society the functionalists outline what they call functional prerequisites, these are what society requires in order to exist.
Entire social classes are shaped by these macro level problems and changes. Changes to conflict on a macro level seem to me that they can cause endless fascination to people who study humans like sociologists because there has been many various attempts at explaining macro conflict. In contrast modernization theories have a more modest goal, which is seeking to explain what happens as contemporary societies undergo industrial, political, and urban revolutions. So from learning about the macro level I have come to the conclusion that rules and statuses exist in society to provide social control and or social order. The idea that social order is a necessity to survive is a certain perspective that focuses upon the Macro level of conflict.
The society’s superstructure or culture comprising of laws, morality, religion and politics. These are determined by society’s infrastructure, methods of production and exchange. He sees in history the conflicts that existed between different classes of people in society – the ruling class and the serfs during feudal times. The French Revolution brought an end to feudalism. But during his time, Marx witnessed the industrial Revolution bringing about conflicts between the capitalists and the proletariat, creating two classes in society – the rich and the poor.
Social policy is a subject constantly analysed and argued, therefore, it has unsurprisingly changed and developed since the time it began, “the end of the nineteenth century” (Alcock, 2008a). Since then in Britain and around the world social policies have been frequently reviewed and adapted. These changes are partly due to obvious factors such as advances in industry and increases in population, however, these developments can be largely credited to three main influences, “changes in the political, ideological and economic context of British society” (McKay and Rowlingson, 2008a) and this applies to all societies. Politically, we live in a “divided society” (Alcock, 2008b) and an increasingly globalised world which has introduced fresh debates over topics such as egalitarianism, and this persuades social policy. Also, political events affect social policy; past examples include the World Wars and the elections of certain prime ministers.