The trade wars between Old Calabar and New Calabar exemplified the best and the worst characteristics of capitalism. In 1767, the Efiks of New Town allied with the English to ambush the Efiks Of Old Town, turning the trade competition into a violent clash. The result of this was ambush was the kidnapping of the two Robin John brothers. The Robin Johns were able to apply their skills and knowledge of their English language, culture and legal system to not only survive the dreaded middle passage but to exploit the freshly decided 1772 Somerset case in order to obtain their freedom. Sparks writes, “ Here we have the remarkable case of African slaves arguing to the Lord Chief Justice of England that their enslavement violated the rules governing the Efik trade and English law as well” (101).
Through these historical events, Ellis reveals not only the daily political, economical, and military strife faced by the “Revolutionary Generation”, but also investigates the founding fathers reasoning behind their actions, thoughts, and interrelationships between one another. For each of the six historical events that are covered, there are accordingly six chapters to his book. Each chapter delves into the personal lives and political agendas of the American forefathers. This book gives particularly close attention to, John and Abigail Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. This style f writing makes sense for him to use, since Ellis has written a number of other biographical books about these two men and their counterparts, such as American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson and Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams, both critically acclaimed and regarded as two of the best books on our second and third presidents.
*British also got the country of India* -1762: British forces invaded Cuba and took it over. - War's outcome cause much instability within Native American tribes; Pontiac's Rebellion( 1763 ) resulted in a reevaluation of British policies- a Proclamation Line was established. Proclamation Line in this they came up with a new law to restrict western expansion by English settlers. The line was based on where the Appalachian Mountains was. - Acts of intimidation against Native American's in Pennsylvania- the Paxton Boys.
Rebellion against the British Government My fellow New Yorkers, I am Isaac Sears of the Patriot faction. I was born in 1730 in Massachusetts, but then later moved to New York for better opportunity. Here in New York, I apprenticed as a sea captain at the age of sixteen. I made my fortune during the 7 Years War of 1754-1763 by commanding privateering vessels in the war against France. As a privateer, I was able to keep a high percentage of the cargo on the ships in which I have captured.
The VOC’s biggest competiton was the British East India Company. The British succeeded in conquering India. The British abused the Indians so much that the Indian states revolted and the British government had to take over the country. The British and the VOC were rivals and were always fighting for control over spice trade. The Brits and Dutch signed a treaty in 1619, which allowed the British 1/3 of the spice industry and gave the Dutch the rest.
The United States of America has a policy and commitment towards the secure international waterways, and takes a strong stance against piracy on the high seas. This doctrine, still being carried out strongly today, dates back to 1785. After the U.S. had won its independence in 1783 it had followed suit as many other European states had and made generous donations to the Barbary states to ensure safe passage of it sea-fairing cargo. Pirates would be given approximately 80,000 USD a year to leave commercial shipping boats alone. In July of 1785 a band of Algerian pirates captured two American ships and held them for a 60,000 USD ransom.
Thomas Jefferson v. Yusuf Karamanli Piracy in the Mediterranean started roughly 180 years before the United States declared war on the terrorists of the Barbary States when sea rovers would roam back and forth from coast cities to seize ships and capture slaves for ransom. England, along with France, and the Netherlands would pay ransom to the Barbary Pirates in exchange for the right to conduct peaceful trade in the region. If the terrorists wanted more money, they would send a messenger to the consulate, chop down the flagpole, declare war, and demand that negotiations be reopened. Great Britain paid the ransom for the American colonies and during the War of Independence was protected by the French government. In 1785, the newly freed United States of America ‘suffered’ a consequence of their independence from a Great Britain when the Dey of Algiers, Muhammad V ben Othman (1766-1791), seized an American ship and held hostage its crew for no payment of ransom.
Slavery has been a part of our history for hundreds of years. Eventually abolitionist movements helped outlaw slavery, but still today it is a controversial topic in society. Gary Collison, who is a Caucasian English professor at Pennsylvania State University, wrote the novel Shadrach Minkins: From Fugitive Slave to Citizen. He wrote this book to voice the truth about hardships of slavery and discrimination. Collison follows Minkins throughout the continent as he is a slave in Norfolk, VA, a fugitive in Boston, and a free black man in Montreal.
Module 3: Chaos, Confusion and the Beginnings of English Law Question 3: Early English law sought not only to deter crime and immoral behaviour but to exert social control, particularly over lesser mortals, nothing changes. Discuss. It is true that some aspects of early English law is still in practice today, although it is not as violent or irrational. Some differences that are still punishable today are: Murder, Rape, Abduction, Robbery, Theft, Damage to property and Assault. However, Adultery is no longer a criminal offence and slaves are no longer used due to social acceptability.
Piracy was not an occupation that was followed by everyone, but it was an occupation that occurred out of desperation. In class, we have been studying European explorations. As they traveled across the Atlantic Ocean, they faced these pirates who were trying to capture their ships and take tamper with the trade system to gain goods and power. The pirates who were successful at pulling off major heists left such an impression on those in power, that the colonial people eventually adapted some of the pirate’s tactics into their new government, carrying on into the governmental development of today’s society also. All things were once influenced by history; we just never know exactly what may have taken place unless we study to gain the