Manic Depressive Disorder Essay

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Robert Lewellen ENC1101 Dr. Shoff Manic-Depressive Disorder Manic-Depressive Disorder, often referred to as Bipolar Disorder, is a psychological disorder marked by sudden and often drawn-out periods of highs and lows. Currently, experts are still doing extensive research into what causes it, and methods of effective treatment. In order to fully understand the under-going research and the possible problems that may arise, one must understand the issues presented with Manic-Depressive Disorder. Age is a critical factor in treatment, as Adolescent Manic-Depressive Disorder can vary greatly in both symptoms and treatment options. Beyond this issue, there is many noted similarities between Manic-Depressive Disorder and Schizophrenia, including but not limited to, delusions, suicidal tendencies, drug abuse, and episodes of depression. Currently, roughly two point six percent of the adult US population suffers from it (Bipolar Disorder Statistics). One of the oldest treatments, still in use today, is the administration of lithium as a mood-stabilizer. Lithium was the first FDA-approved mood-stabilizer in America. Early lithium studies showed success rates of up to eighty percent for controlling episodes of mania, although more recent studies are showing a decline to roughly forty to fifty percent (McManamy). Former head of the NIMH, and co-author of “Manic-Depressive Illness”, Frederick Goodwin MD accounts this to the disorder changing over time, and patients becoming more resistant to the lithium. This is, in-part, reasoning for a decline in doctors using it as treatment, despite it being one of the most studied mood-stabilizers available. Another probable cause for the decline in use can be accredited to lithium's toxicity. Toxic levels of lithium can induce various unwanted side-effects such as nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, lethargy, and confusion. In

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