Mangroves in Pakistan Essay

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GEOGRAPHY PROJECT TOPIC: MANGROVES Mangroves: Any of several tropical evergreen trees or shrubs of the genus Rhizophora, having stiltlike roots and stems and forming dense thickets along tidal shores. Where are Mangrove Forests found? There are 15.9 million hectares (over 60,000 square miles) of mangrove forests in the warm waters of tropical oceans all over the world. Along the Atlantic coast they are found from Florida all the way down to Argentina. Mangroves grow on both the western and eastern coasts of Africa. They stretch into India, Burma, and south-east Asia. Mangrove forests are also common in New Zealand and Australia. Mangrove forests thrive near the mouths of large rivers where river deltas provide lots of sediment (sand and mud). Mangrove roots collect sediments and slow the water's flow, helping to protect the coastline and preventing erosion. Over time, the roots can collect enough debris and mud to extend the edge of the coastline further out. In Pakistan: Pakistani mangroves are located mainly along the delta of the Indus river (the Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves ecoregion). Major mangrove forests are found on the coastline of the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. In Karachi, land reclamation projects have led to the cutting down of mangrove forests for commercial and urban development. How do mangroves survive near the coast? As facultative halophytes, mangroves do not require saltwater to survive. Most mangroves are capable of growing in freshwater habitats, although most do not due to competition from other plants. Tidal fluctuations play important roles in maintaining mangrove communities. The changing tides, in combination with salinity levels, reduces competition from other plant species. Tides transport salt water into estuaries, mixing with freshwater, thereby allowing mangroves to develop further

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