It did not only affect Americans, but also the whole world. The Great Depression was caused by the crash of the stock market or the lack of real investment opportunities in the 1920’s, product innovation that caused less labor, President Roosevelt believed that it was caused by the structural problems and doubted simulative spending will solve the problem, and some argued it was caused by the shift toward modern employment relation that was made by the Great War. A Depression in the economy can start by raising taxes and dismissing government’s employees and both of these actions can start a depression and both of these were done by the government in 1929. Once this is done, it will have a chain reaction where it will get to the point where the economy will fall and cause its people to live in poverty. The prices of the products will either increase or stay the same but the wages of the people will always decrease.
Exam Question 1 Deprivation is the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society. A key statistic that stands out in the data is that Liverpool has 50% of very high levels of household deprivation. This shows that the biggest need for regeneration is in Liverpool by far. The deprivation in Liverpool could be due to the industrial decline suffered in Merseyside during the 1980’s. When a city suffers an industrial decline, there is often a rise in unemployment, and there will also be a lot of derelict and unused land left behind.
This was because there was a commonly held belief that the deprived were responsible for there poor living conditions, as they did not work hard enough – like the upper-class did, some would argue. Yet, the Liberals did pass reforms between 1906 and 1914 in order to tackle this problem. For example, the Old Age Pension Act of 1908 and Education (Provision of Meals) Act of 1906. Two social surveys were published during this time, that not only shocked the British public but changed popular opinion on the causes of poverty. They helped pave the way for a whole range of Government-led welfare reforms.
Wages only improved to pre-war levels after 1928 Despite glorification through propaganda, Internal labour passports Stalin - much harsher conditions - ban on strikes, internal passports, wage differentials and piece rates, tough discipline and forced labour. 12 hour working day in WW2 AGAINST Opportunities for women Bolsheviks - 8 hour working day + introduction of social insurance Kruschev ended forced labour Stalin - Stakhanovites - work hard, better working conditions, also Creches - 50% of Leningrad women by 1937 1874 - trade unions illegal Strikes - 1878-9 St.P cotton mills, then in 1896 around 30,000 refused to work Dramatic rise in number of strikes at end of Stolypin - in 1910 232 strikes in the empire, 2032 in 1912 and over 3000 in first half of 1914 EG Lena Goldfields in 1912 when 500 injured/170 killed by troops In the 1930’s, some improvement of factory conditions eg creches. Mini-judgement: More improvement, but at a price. Under the communists, thy were geared more for industrialization. Under the communists, there was more harsh impact upon working conditions.
The Old Poor Law of 1834 was reformed because it could not cope due to the large numbers of people claiming poor relief. This was due to population rise, commercialisation of farming which left people with no jobs, decline of agricultural crafts, harvest failures, food shortages due to war, higher food prices and change in attitude to claiming social welfare as there was no stigma attached to being poor anymore. This led to different measures such as the introduction of the Speenhamland system of 1795. Having investigated the reasons for the reformation of the Poor Law, we will now focus on the reasons that led to the reform. There were six main reasons that led to the old Poor Law Reform to easily pass which were: a willing government, Tories were a minority, Climate change, objectors were not listened to, and a Report based on evidence collected by the commission of enquiry.
The government could not control all these invasions, so this was another component that helped the fall of the Roman Empire. Document 5 shows bias because it blames the fall of the civilization on internal decay. This is significant because if a very well organized government that had been able to keep order throughout such a large empire could no longer do it, then this meant nobody else could. All of these political
Businesses also suffer when massive layoffs occur. When spending by households decreases, incomes decrease for the businesses. Governments are not immune from the effects of massive layoffs of employees either. When households spend less, and businesses are selling less, there is less sales tax to be collected by the government. Also, when employees are laid off there is less income tax to be collected and to make things even worse, former employees can collect unemployment benefits from the government.
It did not monitor interest rates to help regulate the economy when overproduction and inflation had started to cause unemployment in 1928-29 and the economy seemed likely headed toward collapse. The Federal Bank also did not stop small banks from giving bad loans or from purchasing bad or high risk stock. High tariffs in the 1920s hurt foreign trade and prolonged the depression when it had hit. When Many other nations blamed the US for their economic collapse in 1929 claiming that the high US tariffs helped create their
Compassionate reasons where one of the underlying reasons many historians argue upon the realise of the report on poverty from booth and rowntree in their study of the English town York , a town not normally associated with extreme poverty they found 29% of the population were well below the poverty line. Another reason was the very real fear workers were discouraged by the poor conditions and governments and may later turn against the government and form mass strikes or in serious cases rebellion or join the communist groups within Britain. Political self interest was high on the liberal’s agenda many historians argue. The franchise was being extended to the average man slowly and the liberals realised the average man did not benefit much from the government’s approach to peoples life’s and with the rise of the labour party and other parties many historians argue that it was out of desire to be re-elected that the liberals slowly brought about this change in reform. They didn’t get a majority government in 1910 like they did in 1906 which led them to think that social reform was the way to gain votes.
From unemployment and homelessness to the horror of living life just to attempt to meet basic survival needs, the Depression marks the worst economic times in the history of the United States. The farming culture of America was decimated, but out of these hardships emerged some positive effects. The government helped create a welfare state that took an intense interest in the well-beings of its citizens and passed the Social Security Act. Another positive effect surfacing from the Great Depression was the more equal spreading of economic wealth.. There was also a smaller gap between the wealth of all social classes.