Managing in Turbulent Times Essay

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1. Describe the four management functions and the type of management activity associated with each. The management functions are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Planning means defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and use of resources needed to attain them. The management activity associated with planning is to select goals and ways to attain them. Organizing typically follows planning and reflects how the organization will try to accomplish the plan. The management activity associated with organizing is to assign responsibility for task accomplishment. Leading is the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve the organization’s goals. The management activity associated with leading is to motivate employees. Controlling means monitoring employees activities, keeping the organization on track toward its goals, and making corrections as needed. The management activity associated with controlling is to monitor activities and make corrections. 2. Explain the difference between efficiency and effectiveness and their importance for organizational performance. Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which the organization achieves a stated objective. It means the organization succeeds in accomplishing what it tries to do. Organizational efficiency refers to the amount of resources used to achieve an organizational goal. It is based on the amount of raw materials, money, and people necessary for producing a given volume of output. 3. Describe management types and the horizontal and vertical differences between them. The different types of management types under vertical differences are the top managers, middle managers, project managers, and first-line managers. Top managers are at the top of the organizational hierarchy and are responsible for the entire organization. A middle

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