In addition to this, some psychologists also argue that the genetic explanation to depression is deterministic as it claims that if an individual’s family members have depression, then they are definitely going to have depression. According to some psychologists, bio-chemicals are the root cause of depression. The bio-chemical explanation suggests that depression is the imbalance of certain chemical, mainly hormones, within the brain. These hormones included noradrenalin, and serotonin . Within the bio-chemical explanations of depression, there are three main theories.
Substance abuse can cause depression and depression can cause substance abuse. Stress is also associated with deficits in hippocampal functioning, the critical brain structure that inhibits stress reactivity and mediates contextual cues. Moreover, drug withdrawal leads to reduced hippocampal functioning via increased cortisol output (Keith, Roberts, Wiren, & Crabbe, 1995). Severity of declarative memory deficits
This medication is used in the treatment for patients with a disorder known as mania. Patients with mania experience a frenzied mood, or an abnormally excited mood. The side effects for this medication are as follows, drowsiness, blank facial expression, shuffling walk, agitation, nervousness, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, changes in skin color, widening or narrowing of the pupils, difficulty urinating, these are the less harmful side effects according to the National Institute of Mental Health (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/mental-health-medications). According to this same article the more severe side effects to this medication are as follows, fine worm like tongue movements, flu like symptoms, fast irregular heartbeat, sore throat chills or other signs of infection, neck cramps, difficulty breathing or swallowing,
However, giving elderly people a replacement for dopamine doesn’t seem to help. Although these three neurotransmitters may be involved in depression we do not know how. Researchers investigating the endocrine (hormonal) system have found that the adrenal cortex produces cortisol and cortisone – two hormones involved in metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Cortisol production is increased as the individual experiences stress, and this may trigger other psychological responses leading to the experience of depression. Hormonal (oestrogen and progesterone) imbalances are known to be involved in some menstruation-related depression, although the precise involvement is not known.
The article also addresses the result of consistent failures in ego control. Ultimately, it was suggested that individuals with SUDs would reveal such failures across a wide range of behaviors and could be measured on a variety of psychological and behavioral tasks (Gottdiener, Murawski, & Kucharski, 2008). Freud states that people who experience painful events didn’t necessarily forget the traumatic event but repressed it into their unconscious meaning that Freud thought that the unconscious was both a cause and effect of repression. He proposed that the unconscious is divided into 3
However, research findings within the area of genetics and addiction are inconsistent. For example Noble conducted a meta-analysis and found that 48% of severe alcoholics, 32% of less severe alcoholics carried the A1 variant of the DRD2 gene. Several other studies have failed to find a similar link, this places doubt upon the reliability of the explanation and research findings. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine are also linked to addictive behaviour. According to the disease model addictive behaviour is initiated because drugs/alcohol stimulate the reward pathway within the brain which causes dopamine to be
Negative side effect associated with these drugs Side effects include sleepiness, weight gain, slowness, interference in your sex like, an increased chance of diabetes and Parkinsonism like side effects among others. (Royal College of Psychiatrists' © March 2012.) 4. Anxiety Disorder: There are five major classes of anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorders, phobic anxiety disorders, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (Biopsychology/Pinel/2009) A.
Those who are drug resistant may be offered clozapine which in an atypical drug and has a similar effect to chlorpromazine, reducing positive symptoms and some negative symptoms. Clozapine is effective in 50% of drug resistant patients however this still means that 15% of schizophrenics do not respond to drug treatments and therefore this suggests that brain neurochemistry is only one in a number of factors that cause schizophrenia. There are side effects with both of these drug treatments, clozapine can weaken and damage the immune system and chlorpromazine may cause the schizophrenic to develop facial tics which is known as tarrdive dyskinesia. It is therefore very important that patients receive the correct dosage because if they are given too little then the drugs are unlikely to benefit the patient and if given too much then they may be exposed to unnecessary side effects
Understand Mental Health Problems CMH 302 Know the main forms of Mental ill health The main forms of mental ill health can include clinical depression whereby the main signs and symptoms of this may include: * An unusually sad mood that does not go away * Loss of enjoyment and interest in activities that used to be enjoyable * Lack of energy and tiredness * Loss of confidence in themselves or poor self-esteem * Feeling guilt when they are not at fault * Wishing they were dead * Difficulty in concentrating or making decisions * Having difficulity in sleeping or sleeping to much Bipolar is a specific type of depression this is where a person may have an episode of depression followed by an episode of mania. Mania is the opposite of depression. A person experiencing mania may be: * overconfident and full of ideas * be very talkative * find it difficult in sticking to one subject when they are talking * be full of ideas * have less need for sleep * take risks they normally wouldn't Anxiety disorders differ from day to day anxiety as they are more severe, it is long-lasting and it interferes with the persons work or relationships. Some specific types of anxiety disorders can include: * Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) The main symptom of this is overwhelming anxiety and worry, commonly about things that may go wrong or a persons inability to control a situation, even when there are no signs of trouble. Physical symptoms of GAD include a fast or pounding heart, headaches and inability to relax.
Gottesman & Shield (1972) found that concordance rate for schizophrenia in non-identical twins is approximately 9% whereas for identical twins, the concordance rate is 42%. This supports the biological model as if schizophrenia had nothing to do with a persons gene, the other twin might not have developed schizophrenia. Also, through ‘gene mapping’, Meyer (2001) found that a mutation in a gene called WKL1 was found I people with a particular form of schizophrenia. Brain damage may also be to blame for abnormalities. For example, excessive alcohol and drug abuse can damage the brain and may result in hallucinations or symptoms of mental health disorders such as Korsakoff’s syndrome.