Major Depression In APA Style

1826 Words8 Pages
Running head: MAJOR DEPRESSION Major Depression In APA Style Since the sixth grade, I have been fixated with germs and neatness. My problem was exacerbated with the stress of entering high school and by the time I was a senior, my life was no longer under my control. I was consumed by my OCD and was withdrawing from my friends and family, was not enjoying things I normally liked, I had gained twenty pounds, was having trouble sleeping and was having suicidal thoughts all the time. My obsession with germs had caused frequent washing of my hands. At one point, my hands were so raw that I did not have fingerprints. Another and perhaps more daunting compulsion that developed was rewriting. Anything I wrote by hand I…show more content…
Hippocrates referred to depression as “melancholia” which translates to “black bile.” His assumption was based on the medical belief of the time that imbalances of the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile) could account for all mental disorders. Freud later took the stance that depression developed as a result of unconscious or suppressed conflict. Since these historical accounts, the understanding of depressive disorders has progressed. A depressive disorder is now considered to involve a persistent sad mood that interferes with functioning in everyday life and causes changes in bodily functions. Common symptoms include a persistent sad or anxious mood, feelings of guilt, hopelessness, pessimism, or worthlessness, a loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, sleep disruptions, a decreased or increased appetite, fatigue, suicidal thoughts, irritability, and physical symptoms such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain (Panzarino, Schoenfield, Lee, & Sheil, 2007). With greater knowledge of depressive disorders, it has become evident that depression is not merely a by-product of chronic disease like some suggest, but rather an independent health problem in much need of recognition (Taylor, 2006, p.…show more content…
Probably one of the most interesting factors contributing to the biological aspect of depression is heredity. Depressive disorders have been found to have a genetic component, especially for bipolar disorder, meaning that a biological vulnerability for depression can be present from birth. Having depression in one’s immediate family does not guarantee diagnosis of depression and people with no family history can become depressed. There is also a biochemical factor caused by abnormalities in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain (Bernstein et al., 2007). In particular, neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine are found to be at lower levels in people with MDD. Serotonin is responsible for many bodily functions including notable roles in sleep, appetite, memory, learning, mood, sexual behavior, cardiovascular function, and endocrine regulation as well as a role in aggression. Norepinephrine is secreted by the adrenal glands in response to stress. If norepinephrine’s neurological pathways are blocked, depression can result. Antidepressants that are effective through altering levels of serotonin and norepinephrine prove their role in
Open Document