Cepheid variable stars have masses much larger than our Sun; the more massive stars are more luminous and have more extended envelopes 10. The stars near the centers of galaxies are orbiting at high velocities, which mean that there is the presence of super-massive black holes in the centers of most galaxies. 11. Large galaxies can absorb smaller galaxies called galactic cannibalism. Chapter 14 1.
Name: Date: Period: 1. are natural or artificial bodies that revolve around more massive bodies such as planets. (Satellites or Comets) 2. Most lunar craters are the result of . (volcanoes or impacts) 3. The time it takes for Earth to around the sun is 1 year.
The arrangement of particles in an atom Protons and neutrons make up the main, dense, central nucleus in the centre of the atom. This is surrounded by electrons “orbiting” the main nucleus. The electron are in shells depending on their energy levels, as the most energetic are on the outer shells, because they need more energy to travel around a bigger “orbit” of the nucleus. These shells are full when a certain amount of atoms are in the shell; 2 in the first shell, 8 in the next shell, 8 in the third shell and so on. When the shells are full, the atom is unreactive.
Once the star is no longer exerting outward force by burning off gases, it begins to collapse under its own intense, inward gravity (Chaisson, p.193). It is like slowly letting the air out of a balloon. Once the star is compacted to a certain size, while it's mass, or weight, remains the same, its gravity becomes so powerful that nothing can escape it (Prof. Stephen Hawking, p.87). This critical size to weight ratio is known as the Schwarzchild Radius (Hawking, p.87). Once a black hole is created in this way, an invisible area, or line around it exists.
The composition is nitrogen and oxygen. You can only see Pluto with a telescope. Its surface is dark brown and a little yellow. The Hubble space telescope barely showed any definition of the surface, because Pluto is so small and far. Pluto can only be seen by the light derived from its largest moon,
Under The Astronomic International Union (IAU) definitions, there are eight planets in the Solar System. In order of increasing distance from the Sun, they are the four terrestrials, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, then the four gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Originally, there were nine planets in the Solar System. Nowadays, Pluto has been considered as the dwarf planet. Six of the planets are orbited by one or more natural satellites.
Meteorites are heavy. Most meteorites are much denser than ordinary Earth rocks. The unusual weight is due to high iron content. Even stone meteorites will feel heavier in the hand than most Earth rocks. Meteorites likely traveled in space for millions of years before visiting us here on Earth.
At the very start, the entire universe was about a size of an atom. It was termed by Georges Lemaitre as the “primordial atom”. As one of the pioneers of in the make of the big bang theory, Georges Lemaitre proposed this new theory. At that time, this theory has explained many difficulties that were met by the theories proposed previously. For example, a theory states that the universe is infinitely large with an infinitely amount of stars was met by the Olber’s paradox.
No longer are they looked upon as the gods or answers, but they still carry much intrigue for people. The nine planets in our solar system have very unique characteristics, and help us understand many things about the universe. The Solar System contains the Sun, eight planets, at least three dwarf planets, more than 130 satellites, and a large number of small bodies such as comets and asteroids. The Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy, which contains about 200 billion stars and multiple other solar systems such as ours. The inner Solar System contains four of the eight planets in our solar system.
The theory is named in his honor, the Schwarzschild radius. When stars begin to collapse, it depends on how big the star is and how much it collapses on itself. For a star whose mass is less than about 1.2 times the mass of the sun, the subsequent contraction does not become a violent collapse. Although the star can no longer support itself by thermal pressure, as gravity pulls it even father inwards the star discovers a new source of pressure: electrons in the star’s atoms are being compressed more and more tightly together, and they resist such compression, even at low temperatures. Consequently the thermal pressure is gradually replaced by electrons degeneracy pressure, which eventually become sufficient to halt the star’s contraction and which eventually supports it completely against the inward pull of gravity (Hawking 7).