Cystic fibrosis can have many effects of an individual’s life as they are expected to have a shorter life expectancy compared to people without the condition. It can affect someone intellectually as they could be in and out hospitals or doctors for check ups so if it was a child they could miss out on vital parts of their education and fall behind from missing lessons. It could also affect the individual physically as their co-ordination and motor skills may not be as great and they may be short of breath easier due to the blockage in the lungs from the mucus. It may stop a student participating in sports and
Older people are more likely to need glasses and hearing aids as they get older. Meaning that as we get older, the number of things we can go for ourselves also decreases. Older people also become unable to do certain things that they may have done when they were younger. Lack of facilities and houses not adapted to cater for the needs of older people may it harder for elderly people to live normal lives. • As we get older, our skin has less collagen, causing wrinkles to form.
Critics point out that often this disengagement is enforced, rather than voluntary; someone who needs to move to a nursing home, for example, experiences a restriction of her social circle as her friends may not be able to visit, and may start to die, leaving her with fewer connections. Activity Theory: The activity theory suggests that as people get older their ageing process will be more successful if they maintain their roles and responsibilities as they did when they were younger this is if they continue to occupy themselves with activities and keep a positive outlook on life. As people engage in activities, they are influenced by the roles they play and are assigned by society, and the rules dictated for people in those
Authors put forward this disengagement theory that older people would naturally tend to withdraw from social involvement with others as they get older; older people would have restricted opportunities to interact with others due to reduced health and social opportunities (Aldworth, Billingham and Connor, 2010). I shall now discuss the activity theory. It has been argued that older people needed to disengage, but that they also needed to remain ‘active’ in order to prevent disengagement going too far. Bromley said ‘It is not sufficient merely to provide facilities for elderly people. They need to be educated to make use of them and encouraged to abandon apathetic attitudes and fixed habits.’ Too much disengagement would lead to ‘stagnation’ and a loss of mental and physical skills.
For example, someone who is very ill may still have a big positive view on life, whereas some may feel depressed and extremely unhappy. Role changes; A lot of things may influence role changes in an elderly person for example, loss of a partner, loss of work role or change of income. Role changes have also changed in the household as the parents both tend to go out and work so grandparents may spend more time with the children. Older people also tend to vote more than younger people which show that they are more interested in politics. Retirement; Many elderly people believe that retiring is a positive thing that can lead to more freedom.
Does the Development of an Individual evolve due to Nature or Nurture? The debate between nature and nurture is something that has been going on for years and I am personally unsure as to whether it will ever be resolved. A brief description would be that the nature debate argues that it is in the genetics of a person, or there is a biological reason that they are the way they are. However on the other hand the nurture debate argues that it is the social, economic or environmental influences around a person that makes them a certain way. There are many reasons why someone would argue these reasons for instance mental health could be argued by someone who supports the nature debate that someone can be born with genes that can make them more susceptible to problems in this area.
Do humans enter the world with basic human function, or do they develop these functions as a result of those around them? Are we inclines to be more intelligent, artistic and social because our parents are? Many sociologists, biologists, and scientists have examined these questions and many more concerning what it actually is that forms our talents, habits and personalities resulting in the “nature vs. nurture” debate. The “Nature vs. Nurture” Debate Sir Francis Galton is the 18th century English anthropologist who coined the phrase “Nature vs. Nurture”. His book, Hereditary Genius was the first social scientific attempt to study intelligence and prominence.
I personally feel that they are all important. It would seem to me that it would be easier for the individual to except the changes in the stages that they need them. I believe that the social activities provided to the elderly amongst people the same age helps with keeping the critical thinking and memory healthy. If an individual only needs help on a temporary basis it helps them become more independent. Most elderly right now are afraid of change and I believe that if the process is started slowly they will be less likely to rebel against the changes.
The Flanagan study in 2002 showed that adopted children have more in common with their biological parents as to their adoptive families. This favours nature in the debate as to what shapes our personalities and that it isn’t entirely environmental. This also proves that genetics doesn’t just affect our physical state. Another experiment that favours nature is the ‘Jim twins’. These two identical twins were chosen to be given up for adoption by their mother.
This stresses the importance of attachment, and therefore the negative impact long term deprivation has on children. Richards (1987) theorised that the experience of divorce seems to affect children more than a parent’s death. This may be due to several factors such as little or no contact if one parent leaves the home; stress of family reordering; or the child may blame themselves for the divorce. However, this was a case study which cannot be generalised as the children’s situations are unique, and therefore different to others. Moreover, death could seem to have a less affect on children depending on their upbringing and nature of the situation.