Ultrasound of an artery. This may help find blood flow problems or blockages. Angiogram. During this test, dye is injected into your blood and then an X-ray is done to look for blockages. The dye helps blood flow and blockages show up clearly on X-rays.
Cardiac case study Case Study #2 Professor: Methavichit Sandra Martin 10/01/2013 Case Study Questions: Myocardial Infarction 1. What is the significance of an elevated ST segment inversion on an EKG and the PVCs the nurse sees on the monitor? It is Hypoxic Injury. Rapid discharges that record on the monitor as back-to-back PVCs tells us that his heart is getting ischemia. Usually requires more aggressive treatment such as reperfusion therapy.
D. How would the resistance of Cari’s airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lung? a. The lung capacity is decreased because the air space is already filled with mucus and fluids therefore she can’t take in enough oxygen. The extra mucus and fluids put extra pressure on the lungs. E. How would Cari’s lung compliance (the effort required to expand the lungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia?
The most common causes of ESRD in the U.S. are diabetes and high blood pressure. 2 – History of congestive heart failure CHF is a condition in which the heart can no longer pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. CHF may affect either the right side (right-sided heart failure) or the left side (left-sided heart failure) of the heart, but usually both sides are involved. As the heart loses pumping action, blood may back up into the lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract, arms, and legs. The most common cause of CHF is coronary artery disease, a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart.
A normal resting heart rate/pulse is 55bpm and john's is 70 bpm when recorded by the doctor. This means johns heart rate is higher then usual but I think this is because John has recently been feeling unwell. Johns heart is functioning differently as his body feels stressed or because his body is fighting an infection in order to help his body fight the stress and infection. To help out, the heart accelerates the rate at which it beats so as to facilitate the circulation of oxygen and immune cells which are needed to initiate the healing process. Bacteria or infection that causes a disease and is accompanied with fever often causes the heart rate to rise.
Other conditions that cause anemia are HIV/AIDS, cancer, kidney disease, and sickle cell anemia. Primary polycythemia is caused by unregulated erythrocyte production. Polycythemia may occur because of hypoxia. When this occurs the body senses low oxygen levels and produces more erythrocytes to carry more oxygen to the body
The fluid would have some of the alveoli under water where they could not function properly and there would also be more friction from the buildup. E. Cari’s lung compliance would increase from trying to force gases into and out of the alveoli. Those are filled with fluid due to the pneumonia. F. The fluid in Cari’s lungs would lower her total lung capacity by not allowing the space that is taken up by the fluid to be filled with air. G. The elevation in her respiratory rate would alter her minute ventilation by raising it.
Homeostatic Imbalances: The Case of the Man with the Swollen Kidneys Clinical Presentation: 49 years of age White male Presents: Blood in the Urine Fever Sever Lumbar Pain Physical Exam: Bilateral Lumbar Tenderness Bilateral Renal Enlargement Liver Enlargement Ankle and Facial Edema Skin pallor Lung sounds suggest pulmonary edema Vital Signs: Blood Pressure: 172/100 Heart Rate: 92/min Body Temperature: 102.2F (39c) Tests and Indications: Blood: Red Blood Cells: Decrease indicates anemia. White Blood Cells: Increase suggests infection. Chemistry: Potassium: Increase suggests reduced renal secretion of Potassium. Calcium: Decreased due to reduced reabsorption. Phosphate: Increase due to reduced excretion in urine.
II.BLOOD WARMING TECHNIQUES The existing blood warmer techniques can be classified as (i) Countercurrent Heat Exchanger, (ii) Dry heater, (iii) Microwave blood warmer, (iv) Blood warmer using peltier, (v) Screw blood warmer (vi) Split blood warmer. The ideal blood warmer should be able to deliver the blood safely at normothermia at both high and low flow rates. At high flows, the device should be capable to detecting air emboli and automatically shut down the system to prevent infusion of air in the IV tube. The factors affecting normothermia during blood transfusion are likely to be, limited heat-transfer because of materials such as plastic, limited surface area of the heat exchange mechanism, inadequate heat transfer of the exchange mechanism
ph-7.35-7.45 Pco2-35-45mm Hg 5. Describe what happened to the pH and the carbon dioxide in the blood with hyperventilation. The ph rises above 7.45 and the co2 is removed from the blood faster than it is produced 6. Explain how returning to normal breathing after hyperventilation differed from hyperventilation without returning to normal breathing. When returning to normal breathing the breathing slows until homeostasis is returned.