Vascular volume (i.e., blood) includes the fluid in the heart and vascular system of the body. Extravascular volume is everything outside the vascular space and includes many fluids such as cellular, interstitial, and lymphatic fluids. For our discussion in this chapter, distribution is the reversible transfer of drug between the vascular space and the extravascular space. Drug can enter the vascular space by intravenous (IV) administration, or after absorption of drug administered by another route. The dynamic nature of drug distribution also means that drug concentrations in blood and tissues are constantly changing as drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted.
At the glomerulus, the blood reaches a highly disfavourable pressure gradient and a large exchange surface area, which forces the serum portion of the blood out of the vessel into the renal tubules. Flow continues through the renal tubules, including the proximal tubule, the Loop of Henle, and finally leaves the kidney by means of the collecting duct, leading to the renal ureter. Renal pelvis The renal pelvis is the funnel-like dilated proximal part of the ureter in the kidney. Each renal papilla is surrounded by a branch of the
1. Describe in detail the CLOTTING process. When blood vessels become damaged, you bleed and blood fills the wound, the blood vessels constrict and blood flow slows down. Exposed collagen fibers begin the clotting process, and then platelets in the blood stick to collagen fibers that make up the vessel wall, which acts as a plug. Platelets then release chemicals to attract more platelets, which eventually forms a platelet plug and stops the external bleeding.
During urination the urine is passed from the bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. There are several functions of the urinary system which include removal of waste product from the body, regulation of electrolyte balance, Regulation acid-base hemostasis, controlling blood volume and maintaining blood pressure. The urinary system is complicated and multi-faceted system that involves the entire body to maintain balance within the body. Since the urinary system is the sole operating system for fluid elimination, the system can be compromised with viruses and bacteria. There are several extremely common illnesses that are associated with the urinary system such as kidney stones, cystitis, urethritis, and kidney infections (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis).
From the lungs, blood drains into the left atrium and is then pumped into the left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps this oxygen-rich blood out into the aorta which then distributes it to the rest of the body through other arteries. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ; its job is to pump blood through a network of blood vessels. The vessels form a circle, which starts at the heart, goes out through the body, then ends back at the heart again. The heart has two sides, the right and the left side.
The blood vessels are a intricate network of tubes that transport blood throughout the body. These vessels carry blood from the heart via the arteries ,then arterioles, then to capillaries or sinusoids, to venules, to veins and back to the heart. The final component to this structure is blood that delivers nutrients and removes wastes that are a by product of cellular processes that happen within the body. What is its
Furthermore they diffuse through plasma membranes of red blood cells and bind to the haemoglobin. By the cardiac cycle, oxygen gets transported to cells all over the body, where it’s used for aerobic respiration. One of the products during respiration is carbon dioxide. It is diffused in blood plasma and also transported by the cardiac cycle, back to the lungs. There the carbon dioxide will diffuse down the concentration gradient through endothelial cells in capillaries
BIOS255 BIOS 255 WEEK 5 Lab 5 - Lymphatic System & Disease Resistance 1. Describe lymphatic system functions. The primary functions of the lymphatic system are to drain and return interstitial fluid to the blood to absorb and return lipids from the digestive system to the blood, and to filter fluid of pathogens, damaged cells, cellular, and cancerous cells to help protect against invasion. 2. Locate each of the following lymphatic vessels: right lymphatic duct, thoracic (left lymphatic) duct, right and left subclavian veins, and cisterna chyli.
The left side (bicuspid) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body; the left chamber has a bigger muscular wall than the other chambers and is stronger, so it is able to pump the blood the whole of the body including the head and neck, as it is against the force of gravity. The two sides are separated by a septum. The heart also contains many veins and arteries. Blood is forced up into the Aorta (one of the large arteries) the Aorta splits into two separate parts, one goes up to the head and brain (upper part of the body) and one goes down (to the lower part of the body) Blood travelling around the body is called ‘systemic circulation’. The blood from these arteries feeds the organs and systems (cells & tissues).
When glomeruli become damaged, waste products build up in the body and cause: swelling in the ankles, vomiting, weakness, poor sleep, and shortness of breath. Damage to the glomeruli can also cause blood and protein to be lost in the urine. Loss of this function is called glomerulonephritis, a type of kidney disease, that is a serious and potentially fatal disease, if left untreated. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidneys. Also called glomerular disease, glomerulonephritis can be either acute or chronic.