During a normal clotting process, after a cut or other injury, an event called vasospasm can trigger the smooth muscles in small blood vessels to constrict. Vasospasm might reduce blood loss almost instantaneously. In another step, blood components that encounter an injured blood vessel will group together and form a platelet plug, through a chain reaction of blood clotting chemicals known as clotting factors. This process also creates a protein called fibrin, which is stronger than the platelet plug. The mesh-like structures of fibrin form the actual clot.
The types of fluid are: Intracellular fluid is the fluid inside the cell and Extracellular fluid is the fluid outside the cell. Extracellular fluid is made up of: Blood plasma, Interstitial fluid (between cells - also called 'tissue fluid') Sub-compartments, e.g. cerebrospinal fluid. Water and electrolytes are constantly moving between these compartments 40% of the body weight is intracellular for males and 35% for females. 20% of body weight
The abdominal aorta supplies the abdominal walls, viscera, and ends at T4 level where it branches into right and left common iliac arteries to supply the pelvis and lower limbs. The superior vena cava vein receives systemic blood draining from all areas superior to the diaphragm except the heart wall. It unites with the right and left brachiocephalic veins and empties into the right atrium. Both brachiocephalic veins are formed by the joining of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. The inferior
Cardiovascular system has three main functions: Transport of nutrients, oxygen and hormones to cells throughout our body and removal of metabolic wastes such as (carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes). Protections of the human body by while blood cells, antibodies and complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend our body against foreign microbes and toxic. Clotting mechanisms are also present that protect the human body from blood loss after injuries. Regulation of body temperature, fluid pH and water content of
Plasma carries food from the stomach to cells but carries waste from the cells to the kidneys and intestine. The body needs lots of haemoglobin because it will combine with the gases; oxygen and carbon dioxide. The red cells carry the oxygen in the arteries and capillaries to cells of the body. One function of the blood is to transport materials within plasma and hemoglobin around the body. Plasma contains hormones, nutrients and waste substances.
The lymph vessels collect fluid, called lymph from the body tissues and return it to the blood, maintaining the fluid balance within the body. Lymph filters through the lymph nodes, which are packed with white blood cells known as lymphocytes. These are produced in the bone marrow, spleen and thymus, and they help to protect the body against infections. Spleen: This is the largest lymphatic organ. It is located on the left side of the body just above the kidney.
The wave passes to the atrioventricular node where it is passed down the septum down specialised fibres known as the bundle of His. This occurs after a short delay to allow all the blood to flow from the atria to the ventricles. This wave passes down the bundle of His to the Apex of the heart where the Ventricles contract upward, pumping blood out of the ventricles into the pulmonary artery and aorta through the semilunar valves. Here the blood is then passed round the body where it
ACTIVITY 1 Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Radius on Blood Flow Rate 1. Explain how the body establishes a pressure gradient for fluid flow. There is a difference in pressures at the ends of the vessels. 2. Explain the effect that the flow tube radius change had on flow rate.
Vascular volume (i.e., blood) includes the fluid in the heart and vascular system of the body. Extravascular volume is everything outside the vascular space and includes many fluids such as cellular, interstitial, and lymphatic fluids. For our discussion in this chapter, distribution is the reversible transfer of drug between the vascular space and the extravascular space. Drug can enter the vascular space by intravenous (IV) administration, or after absorption of drug administered by another route. The dynamic nature of drug distribution also means that drug concentrations in blood and tissues are constantly changing as drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted.
Cardiovascular Function Introduction: Cardiovascular function involves the distribution of oxygen and blood to cells of organs, tissues and muscles in the human body, and returns deoxygenated blood and wastes for disposal. It maintains body temperature and pH. An average adult contains 4.7 to 5.7 litres of blood. ‘A person’s pulse is the throbbing of their arteries as an affect of the heart beat’. Pressure waves travel throughout the blood vessels, which can be felt by the further movement of the blood.