Love Essay

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Prisoners in the United States may be held in county jails, state prisons, or federal facilities. County jails are used primarily to hold defendants during court proceedings and those who have been sentenced to a period of less than a year. State prisons usually house people who have been found guilty of state felonies and are sentenced to prison to serve a year or more. Federal prisons incarcerate persons found guilty of violating federal or military law. State prisons are also sometimes referred to as “penitentiaries,” “correctional institutions,” “reformatories,” “detention centers,” or “work camps.” HISTORY In 1790, the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia provided the first separate housing of long-term prisoners in a cellblock called the “penitentiary house.” The Pennsylvania legislature then authorized two new prisons: the Eastern State Penitentiary (also called Cherry Hill) in Philadelphia and the Western Penitentiary in Pittsburgh. Western opened in 1826, while Eastern began accepting prisoners in 1829. In the Pennsylvania system, prisoners entered and exited the prison wearing hoods to conceal their identities. They were isolated in large “outside” cells where they worked, ate, and slept alone, doing penance for their crimes. The prisons had interior corridors or gangways with the cells on the outside walls, each with a door to a small exercise area. The state of New York developed the “Auburn” or “congregate” system with the opening of Auburn Penitentiary in 1817. In contrast to the segregation of prisoners in the Pennsylvania system, the Auburn system housed prisoners in small “inside” cells arranged on tiers with corridors along the outside walls. The convicts were marched every day to the mess hall for meals and to work sites. Auburn was infamous for enforcing strict and harsh discipline. The prisoners wore striped uniforms and were

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