Love Essay

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The biological and ecological significance of the synthesis and release of the Prymnesium parvum toxin is not clear. However, it is now known that this microalga produces two glycosidic toxins, prymnesin-1 and prymnesin-2, collectively called prymnesin, and that the two similar toxins have both hemolytic and ichthyotoxic activity (Igarashi et al. 1999). Does prymnesin have negative effects on the competitors of P. parvum that would lend an advantage to the growth and success of this flagellate? It has been proposed that a critical concentration of a “growth-initiating factor” is required to start division in this species and yield blooms, but this factor (if it exists) has not been described and is an area of additional research (Glass et al. 1991). If a “growth-initiating factor” is discovered, it could lead to an effective means of controlling P. parvum. The targeting of alkaline phosphates for the control of this microalga is another area that will require additional research if it is indeed possible. The synthesis of DMSP and the unknown polyol believed to aid in the osmoregulation of P. parvum needs to be studied further. This, too, may lead to an effective control of this microalga. Additional research is needed to determine which types of bacteria cause a decrease in P. parvum toxicity (Nygaard and Tobiesen 1993). These bacteria could be potential biological control agents, and prove to be more practical in the control of P. parvum blooms that cover large areas in sensitive aquatic environments. It seems that the most important factor governing the toxicity of P. parvum blooms is the relative amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous found in the water, and that limitation of both of these nutrients seems to cause an increase in toxicity (Johansson and Graneli 1999). Additional research must be conducted in this area to determine if an unbalanced N:P ratio

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