699 Words3 Pages

LOGIC STRUCTURE OF AN ARGUMENT:
What is logic?
Logic is concerned with correct thinking. It teaches us to think more precisely, to reason and to argue correctly. Logic lies the distinction between sentences and propositions. The sentences have to be grammatically correct.
Propositions
An unambiguous declarative sentence that has true/false value to it.
-Logicians care about propositions. Propositions are the proper bearers of so called truth values.
-Propositions can be true or false.
-The characteristics are related to one another by reflecting on whether non-declarative sentences like a.) exclamations and b.) questions.
-Exclamations and questions are not propositions because they do not reflect anything logical at all.
-The answer to propositions can be true or false.
-Propositions CANNOT have indexical expressions such as “I, she, he, there, now, since” because they are referent depending on the context in which they are used.
-In an argument, we accept one proposition (conclusion) on the basis of other propositions (premises)
Premises-contain evidence from the conclusion
Conclusion- said to follow the premises.
What is an argument?
-A valid or invalid proposition
-Relies on logic and its devices
-Deductive or inductive reasoning
-Must have at least ONE premise.
-Can only have ONE conclusion
WORDS THAT INDICATE CONCLUSTIONS AND PREMISES:
Conclusions: therefore, thus, so, so, as a result, consequently, accordingly, in conclusion, we may infer, entails that, hence, we may conclude, it must be that, it follows that, should, for this reason, implies
Premises:since, form as, because, given that, for the reason that, in as much as, in that, seeing that, owing to, is evidenced by, is indicated by, may be inferred by
Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning
-Deductive arguments are usually logically valid in the sense you accept the premise.
-Inductive

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