In this paper I will attempt to give an understanding of both rationalism and empiricism, show the ideas and contributions each of the men made to their respective schools, and hopefully give my personal reasoning why one is more true than the other. Rationalism was developed by several important philosophers all around the 17th century. Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibnitz are all given credit for developing rationalism. Rationalism is the idea that reason and logic are the basis of knowledge. It says that knowledge is innate, and that it cannot come from sources such as the senses.
Jefferson says, “We hold these truths to be self-evidence, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson, 80). He states how having these natural rights mean happiness to the citizens. We were created to use our ability to reach what we desire happiness should be. In “The Aim of Man” Aristotle has his own views when it comes to material and spiritual happiness. Aristotle argues that material is what an object consist of and this matter we could not live without.
He argues that humans are made in the image of God with the potential to accomplish perfection in the future, and then humans will then grow to become the likeness of God. Hick accepted that if the likeness of God is to be accomplished through experiencing evil then God is partially responsible for evil. However, Hick argues that God is justified in allowing evil because we develop virtues as a result of overcoming life’s challenges. These virtues are “intrinsically more valuable than the virtues created within him ready made without effort on his own part”. Vardy’s example further supports this with the analogy of the king who falls in love with a peasant girl.
Subsequent authors applied Locke's natural right to property not only to physical products of labor but also to intellectual products as well. Citing Locke's arguments for a right of property, Blackstone directly argued for the natural right of an author to prevent unauthorized copies of his work: "When a man by the exertion of his rational powers has produced an original work, he has clearly a right to dispose of that identical work as he pleases, and any attempt to take it from him, [...] is an invasion of his right of
On the other hand, the school of freedom or free will believe that the behavior of humans is unpredictable on the basis of precedents but it is a choice of an individual. He can choose to behave and act the way he wants to do such action. Therefore, free will hold the individual responsible for his or her action and behavior. Now, the theory of free will is subjective in its nature and, thus, rejects the scientific explanation of the behavior. The history is full of philosophers who are advocates of determinism, but the freewill school of thought has also been a subject of argument in the history.
For example, Mark 12:31 states, “ …’You shall love your neighbor as yourself,’” as Jesus’ proclamation of human relationships with one another and God. The biblical worldview acknowledges that God created man in His own image. Therefore, man should also value human relationships that are similar to their own valuation of God. This realization is vital to the biblical worldview. Otherwise, self-serving human relationships stand in our way of becoming one with Jesus Christ and go against the Word of
Locke’s Enlightenment and Civil and Political Rights is a Treatise of the beliefs of natural law and universal order which expresses his opinion finds, and progression of a material world but which also gives an scientific approach to political and social issues. In his reading Locke defends the proposition that government rest on popular consent and rebellion is permissible when government subverts the ends the protection of life, liberty, and property for which it is established. One of Locke’s main defenses is through the existence of God. According to Locke God has given nature to mankind in common, therefore if nature is given to mankind in common how the origin of property emerges. Why he includes a chapter
If his rational self-interest is to gain wealth, then he deserves that wealth. People are not supposed to care about the needs of others. Self-sacrifice is evil. Every man is entitled to his own happiness. He cannot demand that others sacrifice their happiness to make him happy, nor the
However, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it”. (Preamble of the Declaration of Independence). Thoreau also had a side to his argument that sometimes people must take their liberation into their own hands and must utilize their right to peaceful protest. Thus justifying (and explaining) Thoreau’s not-so-subtle hint at civil disobedience, which the reader would be wise to notice, was the avenue that Mr. Thoreau himself chose to explore.