Literature Essay

1725 WordsMay 26, 20157 Pages
* Spinal Cord Injury * I - What is the spinal cord? * II - What is a spinal cord injury? * III - Symptoms * IV - Diagnosis * V – Treatment * I - What is the spinal cord? * * Spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of people’s back. It carries signals back and forth between the body and brain. Central nervous system consist from brain and spinal cord. It is around 45 cm (18 in) in men and around 43 cm (17 in) long in women. Spinal cord is divided into four sections: cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), and sacral (pelvis). Each section is referred to by a letter (C, T, L, or S). There are 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar and 5 sacral vertebrae. Also there are 31 nerve segments between each vertebral column in a human spinal cord. * II - What is a spinal cord injury? * A spinal cord injury usually begins with a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae. The damage begins at the moment of injury when displaced bone fragments, disc material, or ligaments bruise or tear into spinal cord tissue. Most injuries to the spinal cord don't completely sever it. Instead, an injury is more likely to cause fractures and compression of the vertebrae, which then crush and destroy axons -- extensions of nerve cells that carry signals up and down the spinal cord between the brain and the rest of the body. An injury to the spinal cord can damage a few, many, or almost all of these axons. Some injuries will allow almost complete recovery. * The two areas of the spinal cord most commonly injured are the cervical spine (C1-C7) and the lumbar spine (L1-L5). (The notation C1, C7, L1, L5 refer to the location of a specific vertebra in either the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar region of the spine.) Spinal cord injury can also be non-traumatic and caused by

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