Literary Review of Bipolar Disorder: History, Diagnostic Criteria, Etiology, Applications to Special Populations, Treatment Options, and

2602 WordsApr 3, 200811 Pages
Literary Review of Bipolar Disorder: History, Diagnostic Criteria, Etiology, Applications to Special Populations, Treatment Options, and Specific Theoretical Coceptualizations History The first possible recorded mention of “depression” and “mania” as one disorder comes from Areteus us of Kappadokia, a Roman medical doctor, in the second century A.D. He wrote about patients that, as he described, would “laugh, play, dance night and day, and sometimes go openly to the market crowned, as if victors in some contest of skill” while later they looked “torpid, dull, and sorrowful” (Hillard). Areteus believed that these two conditions could occur in the same person over time (Trede et al.). There were a series of other descriptions that were derived from the same rough concept of bipolar disorder such as that mania and melancholia were closely related, occurred in cycles, alternate over time, etc (Trede et al.). Forward about seven hundred years from the writings of Areteus, the next large contribution to the history of bipolar disorder came from the French researchers Jean-Paul Falret and Jules Baillarger. Falret and Baillarger “stressed the alternation of excitement and inhibition…as central to their concepts of mania and melancholia.” Falret described this condition of “circular insanity as a clinically coherent entity marked by cyclic recurrences of mania or depression” (Trede et al.) The German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin is credited by some to be the father of modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology, and psychiatric genetics. One of his most important contributions, along with works on schizophrenia, Alzhemier’s disease, dementia, and pedophilia, was his ongoing study on manic depression, a term which he coined. Kraepelin wrote the textbook Compendium of Psychiatry, encouraged by his thesis adviser, Wilhelm Wundt, the father

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