The first step towards relieving pain was Paré, a 1575 army surgeon who found using egg yolks and turps soothed the wounds better than cauterising the stumps of amputated limbs with boiling oil. This discovery also helped blood-loss. However, this did not help infection, as the ligatures he tied the blood vessels with were unclean and made the wounds even more infected than if the cauterisation was used. The next step was the discovery of the first anaesthetic by a man called Humphrey Davy, who discovered ’laughing gas’ (nitrous oxide). This was used as an anaesthetic in surgery very early on, but it didn’t work as well, because the patients were in too much of a state to stay still for their operations, despite them being minor and simple.
The Egyptians developed a theory of physiology that saw the heart as the centre of a system of ‘channels'. They failed, though, to realise that the different tubes (veins, intestines, lungs etc) had specific purposes. Their system is called the Channel Theory. Having observed the damage done to farmers' fields when an irrigation channel became blocked, the Egyptians developed the idea that disease occurred when an evil spirit had possessed you it blocked one of the body's 'channels'. This was a crucial breakthrough in the history of medicine, because it led doctors to
Plasma Lipoproteins Metabolism Lipoproteins are complexes of lipids and specialized proteins known as apolipoproteins. Lipoprotein metabolism is divided into two ways, exogenous and endogenous, depending on whether the lipoproteins are made up, mainly of dietary (exogenous) lipids or if they originate from the liver(endogenous). Abnormalities in the metabolism or synthesis of lipoproteins can lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and hyperglycemia. (David A. Chappell et al 21). In the exogenous path the Epithelial, cell lining also known as the small intestines, readily takes in lipids from the food.
Who made the greatest contribution? First of all, Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation is caused by the growth of micro-organisms, and that the emergent growth of bacteria in nutrient broths is not due to spontaneous generation but rather to biogenesis 'all life is from life'. Pasteur was convinced that microbes caused diseases in humans but his work on cholera had failed. He was never able to directly link one microbe with a disease, whereas Koch succeeded in doing this. While Pasteur was not the first to propose germ theory, he developed it and conducted experiments that clearly indicated its correctness and managed to convince most of Europe it was true, although he didn't actually prove it, it just supported the theory.
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Jenner found that the boy fell ill to cowpox but after recovering, he was immune to smallpox thus the method of vaccination was born. This discovery was important as it was an improvement on the previous method of inoculation. Inoculation involved deliberately infecting someone with the desired disease but death rates were extremely high as a result of this practise. However Jenner’s discovery of the smallpox vaccination meant that more lives were saved because there were fewer deaths associated with the vaccination technique and it became more popular than inoculation - eventually becoming a widespread method of disease prevention as it is still in use today. The factors of enquiry and science & technology played an important part in the build up to the development of the smallpox vaccination.
The lymph ascends or descends to the left or right lymphatic duct. f. Describe the lymphatic system role with regard to lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. The lymphatic system supports the lipids and vitamin A,D,E,K from the GI tract blood stream initiates specific immune responses. 3. What are the thymus gland functions?
Medical Isotopes can be really good and beneficial to society in the correct use. They can be developed into different medical treatments. Some examples of these are: Brachytherapy that is used for curing different types of cancers and radioimmunotherapy that are isotopes sent to the blood to kill cancerous cells like the leukemia ones. Also it have been discovered that medical isotopes have a good effect on curing cardiovascular diseases. In Europe doctors have been injecting medical isotopes and it have been found that they can kill HIV that are not that developed.
It is divided into 3 sections duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. 14. The accessory digestive organs are the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. 15. As the acid chime enters the duodenum a hormone called secretin is released from the intestinal walls to signal the pancreas to release a bicarbonate solution which neutralizes the acid.