D) the absence of charged molecules inside cells. Answer: C Page Ref: Section 3 11) The ________ pressure is the pressure required to prevent the flow of solvent through a solvent-permeable membrane that separates two solutions of different solute concentration. A) hydrostatic B) electromotive Answer: C Page Ref: Section 3 12 C) osmotic D) partial 12) Which is true about the solubility of electrolytes in water? A) They are all insoluble in water. B) They are usually only sparingly soluble in water.
high melting point, hard, brittle, slightly soluble in water, conductor of electricity when melted or in solution Molecular solid - crystalline solid that has molecules arranged in a particular configuration. low melting point, generally insoluble in water, nonconductor of electricity. Metallic solid - crystalline solid that has atoms of metals arranged in a definite pattern. low to high melting point, malleable, ductile, conductor of electricity, insoluble in most solvents. Lesson 13.6 Changes of physical state: * necessary to draw a temperature-energy graph to see the change in temperature with a constant application of heat Heat of fusion - the amount of heat required to melt 1.00 g of substance.
As long as the electronegativity difference is no greater than 1.7, the atoms can only share the bonding electrons. An example of a covalent bond would be water, its two hydrogen atoms with one oxygen atom (H2O). If two atoms differ considerably in their electronegativity than one of the atoms will lose its electron to the other atom. This results in a positively charged ion (cation) and negatively charged ion (anion). The bond between these two ions is called an ionic bond.If the electronegativity difference is greater than 1.7 then the higher electronegative atom has an electron attracting ability which is large enough to force the transfer of electrons from the lesser electronegative atom.
When Lipids are broken down they are broken into a glycerol molecule and fatty acids. Each of the fatty acids are then separated into 2 carbon groups and then converted to acetyl CoA. Then each acetyl CoA will enter the Kreb cycle (the citric acid cycle) making 12 ATP per Acetyl couple. !2 • • A1 Saturated Fat -Solid at room temperature -Carbon atoms have a single bond between them and are saturated with hydrogen atoms - They stack well because they are saturated with hydrogen making them solid at room temperature -Our body makes mostly saturated fats -They are mostly animal based (butter, cheese, lard) Unsaturated Fat -Liquid at room temperature -Have at least one double bond between the carbon atoms and can absorb more hydrogen atoms -They are unable to stack because the double bond leaves them kinked making them liquid at room temperature -Cell membranes need unsaturated fat -Mostly plant based (olive oil, corn oil, sunflower oil) !3 A2 Saturated Fatty Acid A2a !4 Unsaturated Fatty Acid A2a !5 The role of fatty acid in the body • 1 Triglycerides- store energy, insulate the body,and provide protection to the bodies organs 2 Phospholipids- a basic part of the cell membrane which have a polar head which is hydrophilic and a hydrophobic tail 3 Waxes- a lipid which provides protection in the inner ear. 4 Steroids- A) a
In forming covalent bonds where the octet rule is obeyed, sulfur usually forms ________ bonds and chlorine usually forms ________ bonds. A) one; one B) two; two C) one; two D) two; one E) six; seven 6. The number of valence electrons in the acetic acid molecule (CH3CO2H) is ________. A) 0 B) 8 C) 16 D) 24 E) 32 7. A molecule in which the central atom forms three single bonds and has one lone pair is said to have a ________ shape.
2.1 Classes of Hydrocarbons: Aliphatic | Aromatic (aka Arenes) | Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes | Benzene is an example | Alkanes: All bonds are single bonds Alkenes: Contain at least one C-C double bond Alkynes: Contain at least one C-C triple bond 2.3 Bonding in H2: The Valence Bond Theory Sigma Bond: orbitals overlap along a line connecting the atoms 2.4 Bonding in H2: The Molecular Orbital Model Bonding Orbital and antibonding orbital produced 2.5: Introduction to Alkanes: Methane, Ethane and Propane Alkanes: CnH2n+2 2.6 sp3 Hybridization and Bonding in Methane Sp3 Hybridization 2.7 Bonding in Ethane CH3= Methyl Bonds with sigma bond 2.8 Isomeric Alkanes: The Butanes n-butane: four carbons are joined
Also, we will discover its regiochemistry and stereochemistry. Hydration reaction is a process that gives a alcohol functional group and a hydrogen to a carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene. According to Markovnikov's rule the -OH group will be attached to the most substituted carbon which is a carbon connected to the most branches. As the result, in normal hydration reaction of (+)-α-Pinene, the -OH group will attach the carbon attaching to a methyl group. However, the desired product is (-)-Isopinocampheol, in which the -OH group need to attach to the less substituted carbon instead.
Lipids are molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sometimes phosphorous atoms which play important roles in health and disease. This essay will examine some of these functions and look at how they contribute to health and disease. Triglycerides are lipids that are composed of a glycerol head group linked by an ester linkage to three fatty acid tails formed by condensation reactions. The fatty acid tails can be saturated, in that they contain only carbon to carbon single bonds, or be unsaturated with at least one double bond. The tails can be up to approximately seventeen carbon atoms long giving rise to the molecule’s very hydrophobic (water hating) properties.
CHM 1321 B Assignment 4 1) Diethyl ether and 1-butanol have similar solubilities in water, but their boiling points are very different. Explain why these compounds have similar solubility properties but different boiling points. Each molecule has about the same amount of Van der Waals interactions, and the Van der Waals surfaces are relatively large. Each compound has a dipole, lone pairs on oxygen and is able to hydrogen bond with water. Therefore each compound has similar solubility in water.
Ethanol boils at 78.4 °C while water boils at 100 °C. So, by heating the mixture, the most volatile component will concentrate to a greater degree in the vapor leaving the liquid. Some mixtures form azeotropes, where the mixture boils at a lower temperature than either component. In this example, a mixture of 96% ethanol and 4% water boils at 78.2 °C, being more volatile than pure ethanol. For this reason, ethanol cannot be completely purified by direct fractional distillation of ethanol-water mixtures.