Limonene, the chief component of orange oil, is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring, as well as a cleaning solvent. Limonene, a naturally occurring hydrocarbon, is a cyclic monoterpene, a class of natural products biosynthesized by the assembly of isoprene units into various structures. Many terpenes are responsible for the odors of plants like eucalyptus, pine, mint, lavender, rose, and others. Organic chemists use terpenes and other natural products as chiral starting materials for complex chemical syntheses or as inspirations for pharmaceuticals. Some natural products are attractive synthetic targets because of interesting or unusual structural features or medicinal applications.
Theory: The purpose of this lab is to achieve a specific odour through the process of esterification where carboxylic acid and alcohol react to produce an ester and water with the assistance of heat and a catalyst such as sulphuric acid. Esters with odours such as banana, cherry,
This product is pitched as an antiseptic mouth rinse that kills germs caused by gingivitis, plaque, and bad breath and this product is also approved by the American Dental Association. Active ingredients Eucalyptol 0.092%, Menthol 0.042%, Methyl salicylate 0.060%, and Thymol 0.064% these ingredients purpose anti-gingivitis / anti-plaque. Inactive ingredients water, alcohol 21.6%, sorbitol solution, flavor, poloxamer 407, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, FD&C green no.3. In reviewing both products Equate Blue Mint mouth rinse and Listerine Cool Mint mouth rinse we have come to the conclusion thus far they both contain the exact same ingredients proportions and all. Not too much difference.
Fragrance industries also synthesize their own esters for pleasant fragrances.The process of synthesizing esters is called fisher esterification, which is the condensation reaction or the carboxylic acid and alcohol. The esterification mechanism for this reaction allows us to see how both the alcohols and the carboxylic acids react along with the acid catalyst, which pushes the reaction forward. Without the acid catalyst the reaction would not proceed on it's own. To complete this experiment a couple techniques were accomplished. The first was done by setting up a Reflux apparatus in order to heat the reaction mixture which contained 2.5mL of isopentyl alcohol, 3.5mL of glacial acetic acid, and 0.5mL of concentrated sulfuric acid(catalyst).
Pg. 459 #1-12 all 1.Explain why a suspension is considered a heterogeneous mixture. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture because the particles may remain mixed with the liquid while the liquid is being stirred, but later they settle to the bottom. 2.Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous: a. lemon juice- can be either, because with pulp it is heterogeneous, and without pulp it is homogeneous. b. tap water-homogeneous c. blood-heterogeneous d. house paint-homogeneous 3.In a solution, which component is considered the solvent?
INTRODUCTION AIM: The aim of this investigation is to determine and analyse the effects of temperature and light exposure on Vitamin C concentration of a sample orange juice solution by means of volumetric analysis in conducting colorimetric titration testing. HYPOTHESIS: It is predicted that exposure of juice solutions to elevated temperatures and concentrated ultra-violet light rays, will result in increased levels of degradation of Vitamin-C due to oxidation and thus decreased concentrations of Vitamin-C in comparison to control orange juice solutions unaffected by these independent variables. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Vitamin C, scientiﬁcally identiﬁed as L-ascorbic acid (information on the enantiomers of ascorbic acid is provided in Appendix ___),is an essential nutrient for normal growth and development of the human body and many animals. It works as a co factor for enzymes essential for synthesis of collagen proteins and also assists the body in the process of healing wound, the maintenance of bones and teeth, and important processes involving ligaments, cartilage, tendons and blood vessels. Vitamin-C is unable to be stored (due to its water solubility) or synthesized by the human body and therefore must be acquired from dietary sources; primarily citrus fruits and vegetables.
Physical b. Pulp-free orange juice is prepared by filtering most of the pulp from fresh orange juice. Physical c. The compound glycerin, which is used in lotions, is formed as a byproduct during the preparation of biodiesel fuel from waste restaurant oils. Chemical 4. Identify each of the following as a substance or a mixture: (3 points each, 12 points total) a. helium gas that is used to fill a balloon Substance b. the juice that is squeezed from an orange Mixture c. distilled water Mixture d. carbon dioxide gas Mixture 5. An advertisement for shampoos says that it is pure shampoo, with nothing artificial added.
ABTS is mixed with potassium persulphate to generate the free radical and Nitrites were produced when sodium nitoprusside were mixed with distilled water. The three herbal tea extracts were also able to reduce the blue color of ABTS solution into neutral color with their scavenging activity (51.63 to 81.62%) for R canina , (28.42 to 66.91) T pratense and( 43.85 to77.82%) of M alba. R canina in nitric oxide assay also showed strong radical scavenging activity to reduce the production of nitrates as compared to other two extracts ranging from R canina (48.09 to 80.03 %) T pratense (35.45 to 68.70%) and (38.25 to 72.39±%) for M alba .Lipid peroxidation is an mechanism to damage cellular injury and used as indicator of oxidative stress(Esterbaur et al., 1991).Poly unsaturated fatty acids are damaged by free radicals and create a process of chain reaction which is divided into three phases namely initiation propagation and finally termination (Suresh and Annam,2013)..In general the examined extract of R canina expressed strong antioxidant activity to stop damage of lipids. The largest inhibitory activity again was exhibited by Aqueous extract of R canina with IC50 values(62.65µg/ml) followed by M alba (92.10µg/ml) and least inhibitory activity was showed by T pratense (119.51µg/ml).BHT was used as positive control in all the in
It is also a potent nerve poison, being used in many agricultural insecticides. Figure 6: Chemical skeleton of nicotine Pharmacology and Physiology of Nicotine Nicotine acts by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which are ligand-gated ion channels. The nAChRs are made up of five polypeptide subunits forming a central water-filled channel (Cooper et al, 1991), which in the open state is permeable to cations. There are different subtypes of nAChRs possible depending on what subunits they consist of. The greatest distinctions between subtypes are whether they are homo-oligomeric or made up of an αβ-combination of subunits.
Introduction: Vanilla is an odoriferous extract prepared from the processed pod of the Vanilla planifolia orchid, and it is used in a variety of ways, but it is especially used for foodstuffs, perfumery, and in aromatherapy.1 This natural vanilla extract mostly contains vanillin. Vanillin can also be made synthetically from low-cost starting materials, such as ethyl vanillin, which has much more flavoring strength than vanillin and is used in formulation of imitation products.2 Some vanilla extracts are adulterated with coumarin, a phytochemical, to increase the vanilla flavor perception since it has a sweet odor and is used as flavoring and fragrance enhancer.3 Coumarin is banned from food products sold in the United States. Yet the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) occasionally has found tonka bean extract products containing coumarin in some ethnic food stores and Mexican restaurants in the United States.4 In this experiment, HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) method was used to separate the components such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin from their mixture solution. In HPLC chromatography, a mixture will separate by going through a medium in which the