Limonene Essay

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CONCLUSION Citrus fruits contain significant quantities of limonene in the peel. Limonene (1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-yl-cyclohexene) is an unsaturated hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. At room temperature it is a colourless oily liquid with the smell of oranges. Its molecular formula is C10H16 and its boiling point is 176 °C. Limonene is a chiral molecule with two optical isomers (enantiomers). The major biological form d-limonene, the (R)-enantiomer, is used in food manufacture and medicines. It is also used as a fragrance in cleaning products, a botanical insecticide, and due to its flammability, a potential biofuel. The citrus essential oil is mixture of volatile compound and mainly consisted of monoterpene hydrocarbon. The method to separate substances based on differences in their boiling temperature (volatile) is distillation. Many essential oils are separated from plant materials by steam distillation. The peel of oranges is boiled in water and the oil produced (limonene) distilled in steam at a temperature just below 100 °C, well below its normal boiling point. The immiscible oil can then be separated. Direct extraction by heating would result in decomposition whereas steam distillation does not destroy the chemicals involved. From the result, the percentage of limonene in citrus can be determined. Besides that, the concentration of limonene from different sample of citrus also able to indentified. In manufacturing, limonene is used as a fragrance, cleaner (solvent), and as an ingredient in water-free hand cleansers. Limonene is a chemical found in the peels of citrus fruits and in other plants. It is used to make medicine. Besides that, limonene is used to promote weight loss, prevent cancer, treat cancer, and treat bronchitis. In foods, beverages, and chewing gum, limonene is used as a flavoring. In pharmaceuticals, limonene is added to help medicinal

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