Lifespan Development Essay

2274 WordsMay 28, 201410 Pages
Lifespan Development 1. Introduction Lifespan development looks at human development from conception through to old age (Baltes et al., 1999). There are several developmental changes, or strands fundamental to each stage of lifespan development and each stage can have a positive or negative effect on the individual and how the progress through their life. The main focus with this essay will be on the five stages of infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and older adulthood. The strands discussed will consist of social, physical, emotional, cultural and cognitive which I will also refer to as intellectual and will discuss these in relation to different psychological perspectives, including Freud, Erikson and Paiget. 2. 5 Main stages of life span (Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Older Adult) and different theories There are several theories of life span development, a few of which I shall describe. Paiget's theory of cognitive development had four stages, which focuses purely on childhood development (Staddon et al., 13), and similar to Freud's theory which has five stages, believes that development is complete after a certain stage, i.e. puberty (Cash, 2002, 121). Paiget's stages were sensorimotor (0-2); preoperational (2-7); concrete operational (7-11) and formal operational (11+). (Staddon et al., 2005, 13) Freud's psycho sexual theory of personality included oral (birth to 2 years); anal (2 – 3 years); phallic (3 – 8 years); latency (8-puberty) and genital (puberty to adulthood). Erikson's stages of lifespan consisted of eight stages. These stages were Trust v. Mistrust (0-1 years); Autonomy v. Shame and doubt (2-3 years); Initiative v. Guilt (4-5 years), Industry v. Inferiority (6- 11 years); Identity v. Confusion (12-18 years); Intimacy v. Isolation (20-40 years); Generavity v. Stagnation (40-64 years) and Integrity v. Despair (65+), and similar to

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