Flaws and Fallacies In Mark Twain’s essay, “The Damned Human Race,” many flaws appear within his abundant use of analogies. One flaw stems from his use of Hasty Generalization. Twain supports this by writing that “the earl wantonly destroys what he has no use for…” which, according to Twain suggests “..that the earl was descended from the anaconda.” (Twain 28). This is a Hasty Generalization, for Twain is basing his conclusion on one result that does not represent the whole population. Since his argument is based on a common fallacy, his essay appears unreasonable and flawed.
Running on Empty In his book, Running on Empty, Peterson recognizes that the hope for modifying the political incentives normally hinges on the changing and the selfish attitudes of voters who have self-interest on political process, hence engendering in vitriolic partnership (Peterson pg. 218). His proposal for the reformation of the budget processes, on the other hand, seems to be myopic, since the pork-barrel politics are disgraceful despite the fact that the reform for the budget processes was proved to be impossible. Peterson has placed a great weight concerning the present generation that is supposed by various obligations to posterity; he says that he is worried whether the social promises of today are binding on the future generation, and if it would be possible to
The Intro of the essay asserts the notion that the English language has been disfigured by the human race and is on the residual decline as a resultant. Mr. Orwell attributes this downfall to politics and economic causes but goes on to outline his remedy to correct what he refers to as a “reversible” process. George Orwell goes on to cite passages from several prominent essays and articles, concluding on the similarities in their staleness of imagery and lack of precision. He criticizes the passages, stating that the incompetence and vagueness of such political writings desecrates correct English prose- construction. DYING METAPHORS.
At several points in the story, he all but addresses us directly, imploring us, for example, to notice how bad Aylmer looks in comparison even to an animal like Aminadab. The narrator can also be characterized as a moralist who condescends to his readers. Rather than trusting us to figure out the symbolism of the birthmark, for example, or allowing us to draw our own conclusions about the soundness of Aylmer’s experiment, the narrator rushes to explain every metaphor and symbol as if we might miss his point. The strong narrative voice of “The Birthmark” epitomizes a key difference between modern American short stories and nineteenth-century American short stories. Modern stories are often told in an objective, distant, even ironic voice, whereas nineteenth-century stories were usually told by passionate narrators who infused their own strong opinions.
The central flaw is that Singer uses a bad analogy of how the global economy actually is, it assumes that the child has somehow appeared there of his own devices and that a simple act will save him. Many of Singer’s key principals, such as the importance of impartiality and the irrelevance of distance are very strong and I find it hard to disagree with them. Whilst I do not agree that to adopt Singer’s solution will cause actual harm to me it is not convincing as the most effective way to solve the problems of poverty. To follow Singer’s principal will amount to everyone else jumping in the water and drowning to some small degree. I believe that while Singer develops his argument by claiming that while people in rich states can survive without luxuries; those in poorer ones where most are manufactured could not survive, as their economic base would fall apart.
In the ocean outside each lifeboat swim the poor of the world, who would like to get in, or at least to share some of the wealth.” (Hardin 4, pg 377). Hardin presents his metaphor to show some nations as safe in their wealth and how poor nations would take that from them if they could, with no concern for the well being of the initially secure nations. He uses this to exploit pathos and make the reader fearful that their nation will help poor nations. He implies it will endanger their wealth and security by wasting resources and causing poor nations to just increase their populations. This section is also when Hardin first subtly attempts to personalize his argument.
Nonetheless, both articles are idealistic. In another phrase, they are morally wrong. To get a true understanding of what an essay is saying we must concern ourselves with is what the author is truly trying to convey. There are often hidden messages in writing that inexperienced readers often look over and take for granted. This is the issue that is at stake with both readings of “A Modest Proposal” by Jonathan Swift and Garret Hardin’s “Lifeboat Ethics.” Hardin’s essay that is serious in tone, while Swift’s offers similar views appears to be poking fun by starting at in a serious tone at first glance but in reality is far from it.
Swift’s story portrays his animosity against the way England was changing. In George Orwell’s essay on the examination of “Gulliver’s Travel” he says, “Moreover, it is difficult not to feel that in his shrewder moments Gulliver is simply Swift himself, and there is at least one incident in which Swift seems to be venting his private grievance against contemporary society.” Swift’s critics have argued that he purely hates humankind, and Swift’s reply to these comments is that he only hates humankind’s folly (Chin). “Gulliver’s Travels” is a satire of the society of England during its publish, Swift ridicules the people of the time. This story is like playing a joke on someone, its subtly making fun of its readers, yet it is still popular, and how is that? Because these people were so naive and shallow, they could not see their own flaws.
"sensetive reserve had balked this scheme" Efficacious : (typically of something inanimate or abstract) successful in producing a desired or intended result; effective. "a highly respectable, efficausious, and unamiable variety" Introspection: the examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes. "He thus typed the constant introspection" Inpalpable: unable to be felt by touch. "the whole universe is false,-it is inpapable" Scurrilous: making or spreading scandalous claims about someone with the intention of damaging their reputation. "intending a scurrilous jest" Pages and Chapers Read: Sunday: Chapter 9 page 114- Chapter 10 page 124 Monday: Chapter 10 page 124- Chapter 12 page 135 Tuesday: Chapter 12 page 135- Chapter 13 page
Hazlitt uses words such as “doubted” “disparaged” “scrutinized” and “neglected” to illustrate how one might be viewed or treated as in the society. From this the author leads us to think that poor people do not live decent lives in the society. Hazlitt utilizes such words to convey his position that the want of money doesn’t make one’s life more difficult only in the “lack of” aspect, but it also ruins the views others have on them. Towards the end of the passage, Hazlitt uses a myriad of negative phrases, “…lose by degrees your confidence…” “…grow…morose and querulous with yourself” “plagued out of your life,” which show how the lack of money affects an individual personally. It is not only through his diction that Hazlitt presents his message on the necessity of money, but also through his syntactical structure.