It is necessary to go outside the commonsensical box of accepted socially engineered thinking to reconstruct an ideology that reflects a well-cultured thinking process. Throughout the remainder of this essay, I will demonstrate how the inherent restlessness of a liberal society led into the age of development, wealth, and inequality by articulating the ideas displayed within Why Globalization works by, Martin Wolf. Furthermore, I will use Philip McMichael’s work titled, Development and Social Change to critically analyze the processes described by Wolf. To begin, wolfs analysis begins with the necessary ingredients to first establish markets within a society. He claims the advent of markets is due to the rational decisions made by the individual; in particular the merchant and the consumer.
They stress the structure of the international system in their analyses as a clarifying feature over states, which are emphasized by earlier realists, and over the natural characteristics of human beings. Waltz argues that the most crucial unit to study is the structure of the international system. The structure of a particular system is determined by the ordering principle, namely the absence of overarching authority, and the sharing of capabilities among states. The international structure that constrains state behavior, rather than the characteristics of individual states, decides outcomes. Unlike traditional realists , neorealists believe that the
Speech by Ban Ki-moon to the UN General Assembly 2014; What Key Principles of liberal internationalist theory are evident in the speech? Ban Ki-moons 2014 speech “From Turmoil to Peace” to the United Nations General Assembly shows improabable key ideologies of liberal internationalist theory. Ban Ki-moons speech stresses through a liberalist veiw how the world ‘ought’ to be, and what ‘ought’ to be changed in order for it to improve. Morality in this speech is very utopian, universal and teleological. Interdependance, collectivism and unity This is evident throughout his very amplified wordings showing a common theme of interdependence, collectivism and unity for solutions to the problomatic crisis he lists.
The idea of fear and power forms the basis of international order is not a recent approach, fear and power sometime is enough to produce order. This essay will examine and assess the claim that international order forms through fear and power, firstly by examine the realist view of international order supported by several examples. It will then look into the liberal approach of International order and also look into how liberal theory view the United Nations as a legitimate authority can create and maintain order. At the end, this essay will evaluate and assess the coherence and comprehensiveness of each theory. The realist theory of international order is about power and fear, in their view, power and fear form the basis of international order, its theory also emphasises on the absence of legitimate authority and the centrality of question of power, such as zero-sum power (Bromley, 2009, p.427).
In fact, we will see, globalization may actually be increasing the potential for conflict between liberal and non-liberal states by increasing the root causes of conflict namely inequality, poverty and injustice[ii]. Globalization and its key forces are cast in favour of the liberal North and are increasing the interdependence and integration of the states of the developed world. In this sense, globalization is making the liberal peace stronger and broader as more countries join the “club” of the liberal-democratic. Given the World Wars of last century were fought primarily amongst the Great Powers of the `North’, the fact they have been peaceful since all embraced the liberal-democratic model, suggests that integration has furthered a neo-Kantian “democratic peace”. The only WWII winner that has remained non-liberal is Russia and they have had an uneasy relationship with the West including “cold” warfare (further strengthening Kant’s claim).
Charles Bietz challenged this belief in his work”Political Theory and International Relations” by arguing that there exists an international society even in the absence of a comprehensive political constitution to regulate it (Young 162). Bietz goes on to argue that ongoing economic processes, investment and trade connect people in all regions of the world and these relationships are often unequal in power and resources. Onora O’Neill argues differently but to a similar conclusion that the scope of an agent’s moral obligation extends to all those whom the agent assumes in conducting their activity. We have made practical moral commitments to them by virtue of our actions (Young 163). Iris Young’s essay on Global Justice she interprets both Bietz and O’Neill and expands on their views.
What are the impacts of neo-liberal development policies on poor countries? Answer Neo-liberalism is an ideology in which states are the key actors in international relations and they try to gain absolute gains or advantages by cooperating with each other. This absolute gain can be limited by the behaviours like non-compliance or cheating by states. In this, kind of relationship states shift their loyalty and resources towards institutions to gain mutual benefits and to secure their international interests (Baylis, Smith & Owens 2008, p132). In neo-liberal perspective of institutionalisation is relative towards the mutual interest for example, most world leaders believe on free trade as mutually beneficial, so they support trade rules, which help to build up environment for free trade (Baylis, Smith & Owens 2008, p132).
The utmost definition is that it is the process a given society or culture is introduced into the modern world system through various ways. This is usually a result of globalization by a dominating stratum. According to Tomlinson (2004), the term has no exact definition, but he defines it as the use of both economic and political power to exalt and spread the habits and values of a different foreign culture at the expense of a native culture. John Tomlinson, the author of the book and topic entitled "Cultural Imperialism," is one of the prominent theorists of cultural imperialism. In this significant topic, John Tomlinson deals with several issues that range from the ideological impacts of imported cultural stuff, to the cultural homogenization process, and also to the cultural autonomy nature.
What exactly is imperialism? Imperialism happens when a stronger nation feels it is obligated to take over a weaker nation, or region, in order to control it politically, economically, and culturally. This practice also became important to growing nations to gain land, labor, and raw materials for the betterment and strengthening of the country. This type of foreign policy was mostly practiced by European nations and Japan, but the United States also began to join in imperialistic thoughts once it became a world power. Imperialism can also be known as colonialism.
Internationalism is the theory or practice of politics based on global cooperation. This has lead liberal nationalists to advocate free trade as a means of increasing interdependence between states, so that the material costs of a potential conflict become virtually unthinkable. Furthermore, they have advocated supranational bodies, such as the United Nations, which are seen to be capable of bringing order