Major concept is to promote adaptation and wholeness
View pt as holistic, sctive, and self-determining.
Levine's Conservation Model (1973) was used as a basis for the development of this study. According to this model, individuals respond to internal and external environmental stimuli in an integrated yet singular fashion. When individuals are unable to adapt to the stimuli, they seek nursing care. The nurse's goal is to promote adaptation and maintain wholeness. The conservation principles are used by the nurse to identify interventions for the patients. Using the conservation principles assures the maintenance of wholeness. In this study, the conservation principles served as the framework for the identification of variables. It was expected that this approach would help maintain the patients' integrity. According to Levine (1973) fatigue is a manifestation of the body's attempt to heal itself. Fatigue occurs when the energy supply is unable to meet the energy demand. In illness, fatigue results from the body using the energy for healing. Fatigue affects the emotional and physical well-being of the patient, particularly those with
CHF. Using the integrities identified by Levine (1973) the patient experiencing fatigue could manifest: (a) a rapid heart rate, elevated temperature, low haemoglobin, and elevated blood sugar (energy conservation), (b) low ejection fraction (structural integrity), (c) depressed mood (personal integrity), and (d) inability to socialize to the extent that they would like (social integrity). Of particular importance to this study is the assumption that the patients perceive themselves as whole.
According to Levine, the goal of the individual is conservation or preserving an integrated and balanced whole (Levine 1973). The four conservation principles that underlie this model are conservation of energy, conservation of structural