2. Antigen is isolated from the cells used to create it. 3. Vaccine is made by adding adjuvant, stabilizers and preservatives. Adjuvants increase immune response of the antigen; stabilizers increase the vaccine’s storage life; and preservatives allow for the use of multi-dose vials.” It is very important to fully understand the
3. Why is it necessary to make pure subcultures of organisms grown from clinical specimens? So that the organism can be identified and tested for antibiotic sensitivities. 4. What kinds of clinical specimens may yield a mixed flora in bacterial cultures?
Before readying the book The Demon in the Freezer, I hired the word smallpox, but I wasn’t sure that it is deadly disease which might use for attack. I interview most the people around me, from those only two percent of them know about this disease. Some of them don’t want to talk about it and other was comparing it with chickenpox. Our government should teach this at local schools and colleges to aware the civilian human population about this disease. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), issued recommendations to researcher for planning and designing studies for the development of drugs that treat the side effects associated with smallpox vaccines.
Food and Drugs as Public Health Issues Chapter 13 1 Learning Objectives Describe six ways that food affects health and disease Identify the steps in a foodborne outbreak investigation Identify the roles played by the FDA, CDC, and U.S. Department of Agriculture in food safety Describe the phases of drug approval by the FDA Explain the safety limitations of traditional approaches to drug approval Describe the role of post-market surveillance in drug safety. Describe recent changes in the FDA laws for food and also for drugs. Identify other categories of products besides foods and drugs regulated by the FDA. 2 Ways Food Can Affect Health and Disease Too little Too much Deficiencies – vitamins, minerals Box 13-1 Pellagra Deficiency Contaminants Individual susceptibilities Foodborne communicable diseases in th U.S., each year, cause: 1 in 6 to get sick >100,000 hospitalizations 3,000 deaths 3 Steps in Foodborne Outbreak Investigation Figure 13-1 Reproduced from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne Outbreak Investigations.
These cells are used in different tests like karyotype i.e., knowing the number and type of chromosomes. These tests will be useful in knowing the possibility of any genetic disease or risk of congenital malformation in the fetus. This helps in diagnosing disorders like Down syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, neural tube defects and many genetic disorders. Amniocentesis is done by inserting a needle per abdomen into the uterus and taking around 20 ml of amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid taken is tested in genetic laboratory for fetal cells to detect the chromosome number or pattern or a specific mutation.
TRADITIONAL AND SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE WALDEN UNIVERSITY HEALTH INFORMATICS AND SURVEILLANCE INSTRUCTOR GERMAN GONZALEZ MARCH 23, 2013 Week 3 Application for Surveillance There has been a need to increase and develop upon the traditional disease surveillance techniques for public health surveillance in the last decade. After the outbreak of anthrax in America in 2001, public health has been looking for ways to improve the methods for detecting the emergence of infectious diseases that affect the public as a result of biological agents ("Syndromic surveillance (ss)," 2013). Syndromic surveillance is a systematic method of data collection and examination for the purpose of detection, identification, and characterization of disease outbreaks in humans as well as animals in a timely manner (CDC, 2004). Syndromic surveillance tries to integrate a variety of data, especially from clinical settings, and other sources in the local communities including providing and supporting decision making in the incident of emergence of disease instead of relying strictly on a definite report of conditions or disease occurrence or incidence (Ritzwoller, Kleinman, Palen, Abrams, Kaferly, Yih & Platt, 2005). Syndromic surveillance is a vital tool utilized by local, stat, as well as federal governmental public health agencies to increase the effectiveness of detecting and controlling the outbreak of disease.
A practice might review charts to see how often a particular vaccine is offered, given or declined. If the audit determines that the vaccine is not being offered or given as recommended, then there is room for improvement. This same practice could be applied to the clinics physicians to audit their performances within the clinic group and see if they differ. Taking these basic ideas they can then be applied to real life practice. Federal Law requires a “single point of entry” for early intervention (EI) to create a childhood database for surveying childhood diseases.
the microbe produces a substance which is antibiotic and is extracted and then chemically altered to better suit the treating of the disease. Microbes are also genetically altered in laboratories to produce antibiotics to suit the needs of the animal which it will be used to treat. This process is carried out by synthetically producing plasmids for the use of transferring useful genetic information from one microbe to another. There are two types of antibiotics used; bacteriocidal and
According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) “Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. Various methods can be used to carry out epidemiological investigations: surveillance and descriptive studies can be used to study distribution; analytical studies are used to study determinants” (para. 1). Epidemiology was first developed to discover and understand the possible causes of contagious diseases (smallpox, typhoid, and polio) but expanded to include the study of factors associated with nontransmissible diseases like cancer, and poisonings caused by environmental agents (Cornell University, 1993, para. 1).