This disagreement arose because of a profound difference in their beliefs of the role of the party. The Bolsheviks believed that the revolution should be organised by a small group of dedicated and skilled revolutionaries who should lead the party and make all the decisions. On the contrary, the Mensheviks believed that the Party should be a mass party with as many working class members as possible. They argued it should be run democratically, with the members electing the leaders and deciding on its policies. For Lenin, the party was to be a group prepared to seize power as soon as possible yet on the other hand, for Martov, the main purpose of the party was to spread propaganda and raise the level of consciousness of the proletariat.
Adam Smith lived through a mercantile system, which he highly opposed therefore the idea of a free market system seemed to be the best solution in a time period before the industrial revolution. Unlike Smith, Marx had personal accounts of the industrial revolution, therefore he would have “anticipated the high- technology, global interests of modern institutions, dangers of consuming non- renewable natural resources and the issue of post industrial unemployment.” Both tried to create a system where everyone could be happy but their views on capitalism as the better political system conflicted. Karl Marx’s and Adam Smith’s views on capitalism differed in terms of the division of labour, competition and the class structure in society. “The trade of the pin- maker: a workman not educated to this business (which the division of labour has rendered a distinct trade), nor acquainted with the use of the machinery employed in it (to the
Marx predicted that capitalism within a socioeconomic system would inevitably create internal tensions between social classes leading to its demise and replacement by a new system, communism. For Marx, the concept of class has always existed in society. Historically, a society has always been arranged into various orders of social rank. A defining characteristic of capitalism however, is that “it has simplified the class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat” (Marx and Engels 1848).
Plekhanov did not believe in terrorist ideas but rather supported a more social idea, working with industrial workers and peasants. After closely interacting with many Marxist groups, the Social Democratic Labour Party was formed, with the 'father of Russian Marxism' as its leader. Like Marx, Plekhanov believed that it was the industrial proletariat who would bring about a socialist revolution; he stated that a successful revolution to overthrow the Tsarist regime was too early to take place in Russia. Despite his popularity at the start of the campaign, many members soon became too impatient with their leader; demanding for a more active programme to be formed. Vladimir Ulyanov was one of the members that constantly criticised the theories of
Capitalism and the Government Liberalism is the belief in an individual’s rights and freedoms. A constant struggle exists throughout the world to acquire the perfect amount of liberalism in a society. The source states, “society achieves its finest expression through the self-interest and freedom of individuals,” portraying a capitalist government. Supporting Adam Smith’s idea of the invisible hand, capitalists believe that the economy is self-regulating and can move itself out of recession and inflation, eliminating the need for government help. When the government is involved, a nation can reach its full potential, but without government control, societies are destined for corruption.
Marxist believe the conventional families are the foundations of capitalism it does this in many way; Private property inheritance, Marxists believe that all functions of the family are performed purely for the benefit of the capitalist system. One of the key factors determining how our society plays in to the hands of capitalism is was who inherits Private property. Engles, Marx friend and supporter, argues that a monogamous nuclear family has become essential in society as men had to be certain of the parentage of their offspring to guarantee that their legitimate heir inherit from them. In Engels eyes this made for a ‘historical defeat for the female sex’ suggesting that woman were now under men’s control and just mere of object to provide offspring to become a heir to the inheritance. Marxist altercate that woman will never receive liberation from patriarchal control with the means of capitalism and private ownership nearby.
Like Durkheim (a Functionalist), Marx believed it was possible to understand society scientifically and scientific knowledge would lead to a better society. However (unlike Durkheim), he believed capitalism would increase human misery before giving way to a classless, communist society, in which humans would be free to fulfil their potential. He believed that history would go through a series of base changes – primitive communism, ancient society, feudalism, capitalism and then communism. The organisation of production in a society shapes the nature of society – refers to this as the base/superstructure. According to Marx – in a capitalist society, the economic relationship of exploitation requires ideologies in the superstructure to cover up inequality – they are not innocent/neutral because they justify inequality and serve the interest of powerful groups.
The basic way to describe socialism is a lighter form of communism. I don't agree with the authors ideas on government because it is know about eighty years after the story was written and we have gotten along just fine while other countries have relied on communism and collapsed. Sinclair’s purpose in writing The Jungle was to persuade people to join the socialist party and to adopt the view that socialism is the only way to conquer the capitalistic empires that abuse the working class. The socialist ethic is that the general public will have joint ownership of the factory. Sinclair uses many clever devices in order to get his readers to agree with this ethic.
Assess the view that Lenin's rule between 1917 and 1924 was merely a brutal dictatorship 'Lenin the affable genius or Lenin the irascible tyrant" The two contrasting views which many historians still debate, whether Lenin was simply a mindless dictator or the soviet view which historian Read hints at by the words of "affable genius", in that Lenin's authoritarian rule was simply a way of maintaining control of the proletariat in order to further the socialist cause, and would then change back to communism when able to. Other historians take a different view and agree with Lenin himself when he said that the dictatorship was part of 'adaptations to the prevailing circumstances’, a reference to the substantial social, economic and political problems Russia faced such as extreme famine and the outbreak of civil war in 1918, but due to his strong marxist beliefs, it seemed that a brutal rule was the only option in taming the unrest throughout the country, particularly if he wanted to avoid a repetition of events such as the February revolution. Especially when putting into context, that up until 1917 Russia had endured a repressive tsar regime, which used brutality and force to maintain control, so the population were used to conforming by the threat of violence and judging by Lenins' statement of 'The soviet revolutionary republic will triumph no matter what the cost" it seems that Lenin felt it necessary to continue this ideology in order for Russia to function correctly. The level of brutality that Lenin used though is somewhat questionable, but in incidents such as Kronstadt, where the infamously barbaric Cheka were used to regain control, supports the view that rather that Lenin limiting the brutality of his regime " In fact he wanted the brutality to be as intense as possible in the short term so that it might not need to be unduly extended in time" so even
The Red Scare Justin Nelzen HIS145 Sarah Farenick Oct 31, 2012 The Red Scare The Red Scare was based on the perceived threat of Communism, which few at the time knew little about. Communism is the political and economic system based on the principle of distributing properties to people according to their need gained from their ability. This system focuses on giving the control over the production of goods in a society to the people directly involved with the production work. In general, Communism stops the existence of social classes and let the people live in profusion without a ruling class over them. This theory was made well-liked to people by Karl Marx and Friedrich in their Communist Manifesto, 1848.