Learning Approach Essay

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Learning Approach Observation – When watching is the main way of obtaining data and when there is no manipulation of the independent variable. Participant observation – The observer is also a participant. They are involved in the situation * Valid as there is no strange observer affecting behaviour * Observers are more likely to have additional information. * Ecologically valid as they do not make the situation unnatural. * Difficult to step back and make observations sufficiently. They have other roles. Non-participant observation – The observer is not part of the situation. * The observer has no other role to play so can concentrate on the observation and be impartial and objective. * Recording data is easier e.g. tallying. * Lacks validity because the observer affects behaviour Overt observation – The participants know that the observation is taking place * Ethical as participants give an informed consent and are given the right to withdraw. * The observer can ask for help in setting up a suitable place for the observation. * Low in validity as the participants may not act normally because they know that they are being observed. Covert observation – The participants do not know that the observation takes place. * High in validity as behaviour is natural as they do not know the observation is taking place. * Unethical – Lack of informed consent * Difficult because the observer may be in an unsuitable position to gather the data. Classical Conditioning – Learning through association Neutral Stimulus (NS) – Any environmental stimulus that does not naturally produce a behavioural response. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – Any stimulus that produces a natural, unlearnt behavioural response e.g. lemon – mouth watering Unconditioned Response (UCR) – Any response that occurs naturally without learning e.g.
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