Unit 3 Ethical Use of Assessment Jennifer Morales COUN5106 – Assessment, Tests, and Measures May 2nd, 2013 Dr. Kim Desmond Unit 3 Ethical Use of Assessments This paper will discuss an assessment instrument that is used by school counselors during professional practice, the Child and Adolescent Risk Evaluation (CARE). This paper will discuss the theoretical basis for the assessment; apply ethical considerations associated with administering the assessment, and a comparison of reviewer evaluations to determine appropriateness with diverse evaluations. This paper will also discuss practical use of the Child and Adolescent Risk Evaluation (CARE) within school counseling. Ethical Considerations The American School Counseling Association has developed a code of ethics to ensure that school counselors act as “advocates, leaders, collaborators, and consultants for equity in access and success to educational opportunities” (ASCA, 2010). When handling assessments it is important that a counselor is not only trained and competent with what the test is used for, but also in the interpretation of results.
The NCLB requires all states to utilize assessments to determine and report if a school has made adequate yearly progress (AYP) in the proficiency levels of all students. This is a relatively recent shift from local control of schools to centralized governance which is intended to improve education and eliminate harmful disparities in education quality (Ricci 342). Instead of school districts determining education standards, the state and federal governments provide the policy direction. One method to assess education performance and compliance with the centralized policy is the use of accountability measures - i.e., standardized tests. The NCLB, coupled with state policy, is intended to decrease inequality and set an objective measurement in place where school districts, schools, teachers, and even students can be held accountable for their progress or lack thereof.
According to Starratt (2008) supervision as a field of educational practice with clearly delineated roles and responsibilities has formed slowly over the years with curriculum development. Glickman and Gordon (2007) define curriculum as what is intentionally taught to students in a district, school, or classroom. Glanz (1992) states that curriculum development and educational supervision must be viewed as integral partners in providing effective instruction in schools. Through research, many authors share the same views on educational supervisions role and functions of the supervisor in curriculum development. Starratt (2008) found that supervisors role in curriculum development involve substantive data collection in addition to providing ongoing training and resource support.
Next, review any data on the child from classroom-based assessments and recent state and district-wide assessments to determine where the child is functioning in relation to those standards, benchmarks, and grade-level indicators. This may be formal or informal data. Also, review the child’s most recent ETR and their progress or lack of progress on the IEP being replaced. Finally, it is important to decide how the child’s characteristics of their disability affect their progress in the general education curriculum. Step 3: Develop the Present Level of Performance (PLOP) for academic achievement and functional performance.
The three events that impacted the profession of counseling were the introduction of guidance principles in the school curriculum, the certification of school counselors, and the awareness of pluralism. Jesse B. Davis impacted the counseling profession by presenting a group of principles that would assist students to locate and achieve their vocational goals. Initially, Davis would encourage his students to further their education. If a student could not attend junior college, he would encourage students to sign up for a trade. Once helping the students develop a vocational plan, he would follow up with the students ensuring the proper fit for the student.
As defined by the American School Counselors Association (2010), the professional school counselor has numerous roles when addressing the population of students with disabilities. These roles are identified as advocacy, transition planning, behavior modification, counseling parents, making referrals to specialists, improving self-esteem, working as part of the school multidisciplinary team, teaching social skills, and serving as consultants to parents and school staff. There are many hats the professional school counselor must wear, however it is important to note that an efficient school counselor executing an effective comprehensive school guidance program will be implementing these responsibilities in collaboration with school administration, staff, and parents. In collaboration with other school staff, school counselors must search and serve, that is, they must be capable of identifying and promptly serving students who
Hypothesis Identification Article Analysis Adrian Perez University of Phoenix RES/342Version 8 - Research and Evaluation II Group ID: PA10BSB07 E Forrest Boyd November 8, 2011 Summarizing the Hypothesis Measurement and Relationships to Teachers Credibility and Classroom Behavior Perceptions by Martinez-Egger and Powers (2003) is the focusof my Hypothesis Identification Analysis paper. The article measures student’s respect for teachers using the following credibility measurement tools: seven step response pattern, survey questionnaire, and student group inputtargeted at specific teachers. The study explores the relationship between perceived instructor credibility (i.e., competence, character, caring) and student in-class (i.e., willingness to talk) and out of class communication. The evaluation conducted consisted of 150 college students registered in an introductory communication program at Mid-Atlantic University. The results specify “(a) perceived instructor character and caring, but not perceived instructor competence, are positively related to student willingness to talk and (b) perceived instructor competence, character, and caring are positively related to student participation in student out-of class communication” (Martinez-Egger, 2003).
Should schools be concerned with parental/home involvement? Introduction This assignment will look at the importance of parental involvement in schools and their child’s education and two of the main areas concerning communication between parents and schools. Firstly, this report asks the question is parental involvement important? Secondly, school reports are considered with an analysis of their effectiveness as a means of communication and thirdly parents’ evenings as a forum for discussion and encouraging parental involvement. This report is going to explore the perceived problems with the current systems with a review of relevant literature and a brief look at what can be done to encourage parents to become more involved in their child’s education.
Types of Assessment Tests This research paper was composed to identify the various types of evaluations that utilize collected information on pupils for verifying a learner’s level of accomplishment, informing education, revealing concept confusion, provide instant feedback, and support potential disabilities. This paper illustrates a contrast and comparison of various evaluations, their distinctiveness, and precisely what circumstances each is best appropriate for. Furthermore, the paper will exemplify the knowledge acquired by the researcher in the following manner pertaining to the various evaluations: (1) How significant it is to an educator, (2) The validity and reliability of each evaluation utilized, and (3) Scoring of the varied evaluation types. There are many assessment types to employ in education. First, assessments are commonly rendered through the use of the five following question types: (1) multiple choice, (2) constructed responses, (3) extended constructed response, (4) technology enhanced, and (5) performance task.
The levels, especially in the cognitive domain, demonstrate the level of thinking skills employed by the student and should be fostered by the educator through assessment questions, encouraging the student from simply dwelling in the lower levels of thinking to the higher levels of thinking skills. Although Bloom‟s work has remained an educational assessment staple for more than fifty years, there have been revisions to the taxonomy (Forehand, 2005), and according to Dettmer (2006), “It is time to review the original version for ways it might be made more relevant and