Brian Guay Music History I Research Paper William Byrd was considered a great English composer of his time, one of the greatest. He wrote for several different genres including sacred music, and he also wrote secular vocal and instrumental music. Byrd lived during the Late Renaissance, a time of reformation and change. However, as people were breaking away from the Catholic Church, William Byrd remained Catholic. The church began to use English in services rather than Latin, however Queen Elizabeth allowed Latin to be used in some sacred music (Burkholder, Grout, Palisca, 222).
Third, Germanic tribes with their barbaric invasions weakened the Roman Empire which led to disappearance of Roman ways. Although there were a lot of changes within this time period, the Mediterranean region had much continuity such as keeping Christianity as their dominant religion, continued to keep German as their dominant language, and lastly keeping Greco-Roman laws and ideas which shaped the Byzantine Empire political attitude. Religious practices drastically changed during the 300 c.e. period. During Constantine’s reign, the introduction of state-sponsored Christianity drastically converted many people from Roman polytheism to monotheistic Christianity.
Throughout Rome many cultural and political traditions were still used during 100 ce- 600 ce. Although there were some continuities there were also changes in the cultural and political traditions in Rome during 100 ce-600 ce. One cultural change that occurred in Rome is that Christianity was more widespread and common in Rome due to the popularity from many people. One political change that occurred in Rome is that Rome split into two separate empires due to the difficulties in governing Rome. One cultural continuities in Rome is the use of Greek and Latin as common languages.
The Roman Empire was strongly built and stuck together for quite some time. When Feudalism began many new traditions were started. At that time period Christianity became the dominate religion among almost the whole population. Many aspects of the people’s lives revolved around church. A disease was considered to be a ‘sin of the soul.’ Music and art also became an important entertainment value to the people.
In order to help properly explain the changes to the words we will be praying in mass at the start of Advent, it may be helpful to take a brief look back at some history of the Church. The first Roman Missal was published in Latin about 500 years ago. It was a combination of many different books and became a complete book with all the prayers and responses needed to properly celebrate mass during each liturgical season. This missal was used all around the world, as all masses at the time were celebrated in one language, Latin. When the Church first decided to change the mass into the common language of each nation after the second Vatican council in the 1960’s, the original Roman Missal needed to be translated into English for use here.
What also followed was the rapid conversion of the new settlers from Paganism to Christianity which gave the tribal leaders rule legitamacy and power. The many different tribes soon began to mix their cultures,laws,language and customs, thus the many different tribes became English. The Angles and Saxons particularly mixed a lot, thus they soon became the Anglo-Saxons. England then experienced generations of peace until the Vikings invaded and began to settle in the North, however a strong band of led by Alfred the Great of Wessex manage to hold back the Vikings. One of Alfred's strategies include building fortified towns along the borders of Wessex.
The Greco-Roman World of the New Testament James S. Jeffers' The Greco-Roman World of the New Testament Era - Exploring the Background of Early Christianity offers a thorough analysis of the ancient Roman era. He takes the reader through the religious background to the Christian era, what life was like in urban areas and in the provinces, tools of government, Jews in the cities, the importance of citizenship, the status of women and education, as well as a comparative look at ancient and modern slavery, and a detailed comparison of the ancient social class hierarchy.  This paper is a cursory review of Jeffers’ publication. Like a number of great civilizations of our past, Rome arose by gradually conquering the peoples around it. But unlike many other kingdoms, the Romans incorporated the conquered peoples into their society.
The Transformation of the Roman Basilica Nowadays we see basilicas as places of worship rather than places of legal administration or public gathering. As time has passed, we have distorted the original meaning of the basilica that the Romans’ created and have given it a new, second meaning as ‘major’ and ‘minor’ basilicas have come into use of terminology. This is not to say that we have destroyed this original meaning, but have made it less renown than it should be. Roman basilicas have undergone a massive transformation, both architecturally and purposely. Basilicas are very versatile in that they have many forms, and yet they see to have distinct characteristics which have been carried over, and have evolved with the basilicas we know today as places of worship.
The Requiem Mass in Gregorian Chant: An Analysis of the Text Set to Chant For centuries, the Roman Catholic mass along with the ancient Latin text has been the basis for Catholic worship. The Roman Missal is the basis for the complex of prayers and ceremonies with the Latin texts (which have now been translated to numerous languages) that help to celebrate the mass: the exultation of the Holy Eucharist. The set system used is a combination of Ordinary mass parts, of which the text does not change, and the Proper, which change based on the feast day. One of the most unique Roman masses to study is the Requiem Mass. The ancient nature of the text makes it “one of the most beautiful and expressive in the Roman Missal (the book that contains the texts of the mass).
This similarity shows that, though neither civilization was dependent on it, land trade played an important role in the cultures of the two civilizations. These trade roads also played a large part in the cultural diffusion of Rome and Latin America. In Classical Latin America and the early years of Classic Rome, Mountainous terrain isolated cities, towns, and villages, but through the complex trade routes, these two civilizations could interact with their surrounding civilizations. Another similarity between the two cultures was that the Aztecs, a classical civilization of Latin America, and the Romans both conquered new territory for either political or economic reasons. With Rome conquering Western Europe and the Aztecs conquering the majority of Central America, the two civilizations gathered a large amount of wealth from the conquered states.