Landforms in Australia Essay

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Landforms are divided into 4 major regions Coastal Plains • The coastal plains are around Australia's edge. These are narrow and discontinuous. • They often take the form of the river valleys such as those of the Fitzroy River near Rockhampton and the Hunter Valley near Newcastle. The Eastern Highlands • Great Dividing Range • 10% of continent and run in a strip up to 200km wide and down Australia's east coast from Cape York Peninsula to Tasmania. • Highest peak Mt Kosciuszko - 2228 metres above sea level. • Rugged with deep valleys and gorges. • Composed of folded and faulted igneous rock (molten or partly molten) • Influences the regions' climate, soils, vegetation and settlement pattern as well as land use. The Southern Highlands (part of Eastern Highlands) • Series of low ranges formed by faulting • The Mt Lofty Range and Flinders Ranges were formed by this process. • Spencer Gulf and Gulf of St Vincent (where Adelaide is located) are now drowned rift valleys. The Central Lowlands • Gulf of Carpentaria in the north to the Great Australia Bight in the South. • Vast area of flat, low-lying land containing three large drainage basins, the Carpentaria lowlands in the north, the Lake Eyre basin in the centre and the Murray- Darling basin in the South. • Vast reservoirs of underground water in porous rock beneath the surface called artesian basin this can be pumped out via a bore (artesian water) • Composed of sediments deposited on the floor of an ancient island sea. • Features include salt pans and sand ridges. • Australia's largest lake, Lake Eyre, covers 9500 km2. At 16 metres below sea level, the lake is the lowest point in Australia. Lake Eyre has only been filled 3 times in the last 100 years. Great Western Plateau • Vast area of land- two-thirds of the continent. • Huge stable block of ancient igneous
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