Prejudices and stereotyping are the ideas and thoughts people have about other groups of personss without regard to individual differences. I believe these lead to the actions of disrimination. The physical act of prejudice is discrimination. • What are the causes of discrimination? Discrimination can be caused by many factors.
In the absence of detail, stereotyping in many situations allow us to arrive at a general conclusion of these groups. Although we may innocently generate and be responsible for stereotypes, it can, and does, often lead to unfair inequity and discrimination when the stereotype is inauspicious. By stereotyping, we take for granted that a person or group has some definite distinctiveness. Television, books, comic strips, music, and theater are all copious starting places of stereotyped characters. Stereotypes also progress out of trepidation of persons from minority groups.
Eickman offers a useful definition for deviance saying that ‘deviance is behaviour that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society’. Deviance is not only explained to be relative because it varies between different societies. It is also relative because some actions can be seen as deviant in some instances but not others in the same society. Factors that can play a part in this are time, place and social situation. For example it was once considered deviant for a woman to consume alcohol but over time society view on that has changed.
Gender and The Body ANTH100C Gender and the body are both socially constructed ideas that inform society how they should act and how they should look. Since they are both socially constructed they will mean different things depending on the culture and society that you belong to. While different genders face different body related issues society pressures each gender in its own way. Cultural standards of gender and the body can be hard to meet. While they effect everyone differently they lead to my personal battle with anorexia.
Deviance is best described as something in society that is out of the social norm. Howard Becker, author of Outsiders, claims that deviance is, “a consequence of the responses of others actions to a person’s act...” (Becker 9). In brief, deviance is based on what society views as normal, or not normal, and the stigma one receives for deviance is based on how unusual the deviance is. Although deviance does not have to be negative, often times, uncommon, irregular things are looked down upon in society. One of the many deviant subcultures in today’s world is anorexia.
Labelling theory first came about in the late 1960s and 70s as a new approach to crime and deviance, and is a social way of thinking about crime. It became the main sociological theory of crime, even though it did not try and understand what exactly made people criminal but more societies reactions to crime, “it looks towards society’s reaction to the deviant more than to the person of the deviant” [Williams; 2008, Pg.420]. Previously, Functionalists had discussed reasons for deviance being anomie and incorrect socialisation within an individual causing them to be unaware of social norms and fall away from mainstream society. Marxists had blamed the anti-social acts of working class criminals on the oppression and alienation they are faced with through living in a capitalist society. Both theories place the actual reason for deviance to be within an individual, whereas labelling theory moved away from that.
Societal Impact of Stereotyping in Advertisements Based on how a person views a specific group’s characteristics, qualities, and personality traits are prime examples of stereotyping. In today’s society, stereotyping has become a very sensitive subject. Author Yuki Fujioka defined stereotyping as “cognitive structures that contain the perceiver’s knowledge, beliefs, and expectancies about some human group” (53). Stereotypes are based on a person’s continuous experience with a specific group, place or culture. While an experience with one person may not be the same with another, the affects of stereotyping has cause many people to be unfortunately associated with others based on their actions.
Abnormal behaviour can be hard to define. However psychologists described it as deviating from normal or typical behavioural characteristics. Norms are social rules that guide society and tell people what is right or wrong behaviour. They are usually culturally influenced, so what may be normal in one culture, may be seen as abnormal and strange in another. If a person was to be seen violating the cultural norms, they would be described as acting abnormally.
Using material from item A and elsewhere assess the usefulness of sub-cultural theories in explaining sub-cultural crime and deviance in society today. Subcultures, such as the ones mentioned in item A consist of a group of people whom share the same norms and values together, yet oppose mainstream culture. Criminals are seen to become part of a subculture as their values are different to normal society. These criminal individuals have rejected society’s norms and invented their own as they feel that society has rejected them, which means they become materially deprived and blame society as it has not met their needs. However, the criminals resort to things such as burglary to maintain materialistic property.