Lab Report Open Channel

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PART A : THE HYDRAULIC JUMPS 1.0 INTRODUCTION The concept of the hydraulic jump when the hydraulic drop that occurs at a sudden drop in the bottom of a channel, and the free surface flow around obstructions like bridge piers. A hydraulic jump forms when a supercritical flow changes into a subcritical flow. The change in the flow regime occurs with a sudden rise in water surface. Considerable turbulence, energy loss and air entrainment are produced in the hydraulic jump. A hydraulic is used for mixing chemicals in water supply systems, for dissipating energy below artificial channel controls, and as an aeration device to increase the dissolved oxygen in water. In a hydraulic jump there occurs a sudden change in liquid depth from less-thancritical to greater-than-critical depth. The velocity of the flow changes from supercritical to subcritical as a result of the jump. This transition takes place over a relatively short distance, usually less than 5 times the depth of flow after the jump, over which the height of the liquid increase rapidly, incurring a considerable loss of energy. An example of a hydraulic jump can be observed when a jet of water from a faucet strikes the horizontal surface of the kitchen sink. The water flows rapidly outward and a circular jump occurs. We shall restrict the derivation of the basic equation of the hydraulic jump to rectangular horizontal channels. First, we shall determine the downstream depth of the jump by using the momentum and continuity equations for one-dimensional flow. Then the energy loss due to the jump will be evaluated, using the energy equation. 2.0 OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristic a standing wave (the hydraulic jump) produced when waters beneath an undershot weir and to observe the flow patterns obtained. 4.0 THEORY When water flowing rapidly changes to slower
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