Lab Report

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ABSTRACT This laboratory report Introduction The Hardness of water is due to the presence of any polyvalent metallic cations in the water. Usually, Ca2+ , Mg2+, Fe2+, Sr2+ and so on. These cations usually originate from the contact of water with soil and rocks. Principally, the hardness of natural water is due to the cations of calcium and magnesium. Hardness of the water varies from place to place depending on the presence of polyvalent cations in the soil and the sources of the water. In general, ground waters are harder than surface waters. Water hardness is usually measured by the equivalent concentration CaCO3 in mg/L. Public acceptability of water may vary considerably from one community to another The taste threshold for the calcium ion is in the range of 100–300 mg/l, depending on the associated anion, and the taste threshold for magnesium is probably lower than that for calcium (Guide Line of Drinking Water, WHO 5th Edition P. 225). According to the Guide Line of Canadian Drinking Water Quality, hardness level between 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 are considered acceptable and level morethan 200 mg/L of CaCO3 are considered poor but can be tolerated but more than 500mg/L of CaCO3 is unacceptable (Laboratory No. 1 manual) .and the degree of hardness are listed in table. Table1: Hardness level in Drinking Water Hardness rating | Soft | Medium | Hard | Very hard | Concentration of CaCO3 (mg/L) | 0 to < 60 | 60 to < 120 | 120 < 180 | >180 | There are many side-effects resulting from hard water for domestic and industrial usage. For example, in lather production if the water is hard, it will difficult to produce lather; as well, the amount of soap requires will increase. In addition; the excessive hardness of water create problem in different industrial units such as boilers, pipes, heaters and other water appliances by forming scale

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