Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Water NaOH(aq) + HClaq → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Variables Independent The independent variable of the experiment was the amount of sodium hydroxide that we added to the acid. To keep the variable controlled we would measure 1 ml of the sodium hydroxide and pouring that to the hydrochloric acid. Dependent The dependent variables of the experiment were the temperature and the pH number of the mixture. To control the pH and temperature use the electronic probe and data logger. Controlled The controlled variables of the experiment were: A.
Reduction and Recovery of Copper Name Here March 18, 2015 Purpose: The goal of this experiment was to use redox chemistry to obtain a sample of copper from a copper (II) sulfate solution. This was accomplished by adding zinc to the copper (II) sulfate solution so that the zinc bonds to the sulfate and leaves copper. Method: To obtain copper from a copper (II) sulfate solution, the copper needs to go through reduction; this means another element has to go through oxidation. For this experiment, zinc was the element going through oxidation. First, we had to calculate how many grams of copper (II) sulfate we needed to form 100 mL of a 0.200 M solution of copper (II) sulfate.
Part B Was hydrogen present in the test tube? How could you tell? If your test did not confirm the presence of hydrogen, give a possible explanation. Hydrogen gas was produced through the reaction of hydrochloric acid, and zinc. This is provable by the reaction that occurred with the two gases hydrogen and oxygen.
Determination of Copper Metal Ions Through Reactions with Zinc Aim: The aim of this experiment is to determine which of the common copper ions, Cu+1 and Cu+2, is present in each of two unknown copper compounds, and whether or not the copper compounds contain the same copper ion. Nomenclature: Light blue substance: LB Dark blue substance: DB Preliminary Calculations: Identify the available test metal with the highest ionization energy. The available test metal with the highest ionization energy is Zinc. Because Zinc has the highest ionization energy (904) compared to Magnesium (736), and Aluminium (578), Zinc will be used in this experiment. Create reactions with anion placeholders for copper compound and Zinc.
Discussion: A and B are the elements while BC and AC are compounds. In the reactivity of Group 1A metals with water, we had identified that A is a metal while B is hydrogen. The activity of a metal is the tendency of a metal atom to loose electrons to become a positive ion. The metals in Group 1A are even more reactive than the hydrogen and are able to push hydrogen out of solution. The equation for the reaction is known as: Metal + cold water [pic]hydrogen(H2) + metal hydroxide (MeOH) The reaction is very exothermic and had the tendency to allow the hydrogen to ignite a fire.
The carbon rod is surrounded by a layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2), and a thick paste of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2), which serves as an electrolyte. The oxidation reaction that takes place on the zinc casing is: Zn(s)→Zn+2+2e- While the reduction reaction that takes place on the carbon rod is: 2MnO2+2H+(aq)+2e-→Mn2O3(s)+H2O(l) The overall reaction is: Zn(s)+2MnO2+2NH4+(s)→Mn2O3(s)+Zn(NH3)22+(aq)+H2O(l) The standard dry cell contains 1.5V. The reactions present in dry cells continue until they run out of a reactant (the anode or cathode). However, there are cells that can be recharged, as the redox reaction can be reversed in order to regenerate the original reactants. Some examples of these batteries include lithium batteries and car batteries.
Repeat step 5 and 6 but replace magnesium with zinc Done so 2 metals can be tested at the same time 8. Place magnesium in one test tube and place zinc in the other test tube Done to start the reaction Done to have two reactions occurring at once 9. Look for a chemical change to occur Includes a color change, precipitate forming, or bubbles forming 10. Repeat steps 5-6 but test iron and nickel in the solution instead solution Done to test the reactivity of the two other metals, iron and nickel 11. Take zinc
Experimental results: Reaction 1: Metallic Copper with Nitric Acid Cu(s) + 4HNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) +2NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) Net ionic: Cu(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2NO3- (aq) 2NO2 (g) + Cu2+ (aq) + 2H2O(l) Type of Reaction: Redox Reaction: Copper loses electrons and is oxidized to copper (II) ion. Nitrogen gains electrons from the copper ion, and is reduced to nitrogen dioxide gas. Nitric acid is an oxidizing agent. Copper is the reducing agent. Observations: * Solution turns green and bubbles * Warm to the touch * Brown gas produced * Copper Dissolves Reaction 2: Copper (II) Nitrate with Sodium Hydroxide Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net ionic: Cu2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) Type of Reaction: Precipitate Reaction Observations: * With addition of water, the solution becomes blue, thick, and slime-like * When added to litmus paper, paper turns dark blue * Dark blue shows that the solution is basic Reaction 3: Heating Copper Cu(OH)2(s) CuO(s) + H2O(l) Net ionic: Cu(OH)2(s) CuO(s) + H2O(g) Type of Reaction: Redox Reaction: Cu is oxidized from 2- to 2+.
The purpose of this experiment is to record its physical properties and how the reaction reacts.. During the lab, my hypothesis toward this experiment was that the reactants was going to be successful and turn black. Materials: -Copper Sulfate -Zinc -Zinc Sulfate -Hydrochloric Acid Equipment: -Two test tube -Wood Splints -Graduated Cylinder -Matches -Two Watch Glasses -Goggles Data/Results: Observations: Observation 1 Copper Sulfate Liquid and it turned into a blue green color. Observation 2 Zinc was placed The solution starts to become silver, hard and rock lie. Observation 3 Copper acid was added. The solution starts to turns into a black color.
By recording the amount of silver nitrate (AgNO3) is used, the amount of the chloride used is figured. An indicator is used to help determine when the reaction is complete. The indicator used in this experiment is potassium chromate (K2CrO4). The recorded volume of silver nitrate (AgNO3) used is then used to determine the molarity of the silver chloride (AgCl) created. Moles of AgCl = (Volume of AgNO3 added) × (Molarity of AgNO3) Using the molarity of the silver chloride (AgCl) and the atomic weight of the chloride (35.4527), the weight of the chloride from the original unknown chloride salt sample.