Lab of Fungi Essay

1107 WordsMar 14, 20135 Pages
Biology 102 Study Outline Exam II Chapters 23 & 27 Chapter 23 (280,000+ species of plants) o General Definitions: vascular tissue, xylem, phloem, cuticle, stomata (sing=stoma), antheridia, archegonia, homosporous, heterosporous, protonema, microphylls, megaphylls, sporophylls, strobili, seeds, endosperm, monoecious, dioecious, cotyledons  Evolutionary events associated with algae plants o Nourishment and protection of embryo within body of plant: nonvascular plants developed from algae, 500mya o Development of vasculature: seedless vascular plants develop from nonvascular plants, 430mya o Seeds develop: seed plants (gymnosperms, naked seeds) evolve from seedless vascular plants, 400mya o Flowers develop: flowering plants (angiosperms) evolve from, gymnosperms  Understand alternation of generations life cycle: sporophyte (2n) makes spores gametophyte (n) produces gametes o Spores produced via meiosis and develop into gametophyte via mitosis o Gametes from gametophyte merge (fertilization) to produce diploid zygote that will mature into sporophyte o Which is dominant? Dominant generation is what you recognize as the plant (it is the sporophyte in all plants except nonvascular plants(mosses))  Nonvascular plants: 24,000 species, cannot transport water, so have to stay small (few cm’s), no roots, stems, leaves, gametophyte is dominant, bryophytes is common name o Sperm swims from male gametophyte (antheridia) to female (archegonia) o Sporophyte grows out of gametophyte and usually capsule is where spores are produced and released, usually 2 stage gametophyte in mosses (protonema)  Hornworts (100), liverworts (8,000) and mosses (15,000)  Mosses as indicators (copper, calcium, etc…)  Vascular Plants: 11,500 species of ferns and fern allies (like ferns), have xylem and phloem, sporophyte is dominant, can get big due to vascular tissue o

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